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Golden Selin generic 30gm acticin otc acne 19 years old, lowship by the American Academy of Orthopedic Henry Jaffe over the years made major contribu- Surgeons in 1969 and was also honored by the tions in three spheres: the pathophysiology of the Mexican Orthopedic Society best acticin 30 gm acne conglobata, the New Jersey endocrine glands and their effect on bone; the Orthopedic Society, and the Quebec Society of development, structure, and pathological reac- Orthopedics and Traumatology. Jaffe was a tions of skeletal tissues; and the description of Diplomate of the American Board of Pathology speciﬁc skeletal diseases. In all, these efforts and a Fellow of the College of American Pathol- resulted in more than 130 original publications ogists. He held memberships in the American and two major books: Tumours and Tumorous Society of Experimental Pathology, the American Conditions of Bones and Joints, published in Association of Pathologists and Bacteriologists, 1958, and Metabolic, Degenerative, and Inﬂam- the Society of Experimental Biology and Medi- 162 Who’s Who in Orthopedics cine, the International Academy of Pathology, and number of students and disciples. He died on numerous other national and international scien- January 12, 1979, in his 82nd year. Those who knew him would agree with the wards of the late Samuel Kleinberg, MD, written in 1951 in the dedication of a volume of the Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases com- memorating Dr. Jaffe] is decidedly individualistic, but with opin- ions based on reasoning and experience. He is strong of will and freely gives his opinions, letting the ‘chips’ of information ﬂy where they will. Jaffe was a devoted and ﬁercely loyal friend to those of his colleagues with whom he collaborated and whom he respected. He was revered by his students and especially by the hun- dreds of house ofﬁcers in the New York area who attended his conferences and learned pathology from the man who “wrote the book. Jaffe had a life outside of the hospital, but it was Arthur Rocyn JONES indeed a rich one. The Arthur Rocyn Jones, consulting surgeon to the older, Arthur, was Professor of Mathematical Royal National Orthopedic Hospital, died peace- Physics at Harvard University in Cambridge, fully at his home on Stanmore Hill on February Massachusetts. The last 3 years, a period entertaining but liked to spend time with their of increasing frailty, had brought several alarms family and close relations even more. Jaffe about his health and once a spell of some weeks loved to garden and approached this activity with in hospital, but a strong Welsh constitution always the same passion as his scientiﬁc pursuits. He came to the rescue, keeping him on his feet with constructed a terrace on the grounds of one of a clear memory of the exciting events of his early their homes in Pelham and raised ﬂowers, except career in orthopedics, almost to the very end. He for a brief period during World War II when he, was equally sustained by the deep but unobtrusive like many of his neighbors, converted it to a Christian belief that had governed the conduct of victory garden. He Over the years, Rocyn, as he was known affec- had an extensive record collection and often tionately, forged a strong personal link with the attended concerts. The Jaffes vacationed in early days of orthopedic surgery in Great Britain. Jaffe enjoyed In 1918, sponsored by Elmslie, the thinker, and outdoor activities with his wife and children. Bankart, the man of speedy action, he had been The worlds of pathology and radiology, and elected a founder member of the British Ortho- especially orthopedics, are deeply in the debt of pedic Association, of which in due course he this extraordinary man, who in his lifetime became the historian. To mark his 85th birthday, brought order to the chaos of bone pathology, the number of The Journal of Bone and Joint served as the ﬁnal arbiter for countless puzzling Surgery for May 1968 was dedicated to him. The cases, and brought enlightenment to a vast warm appreciation it contained, from the ﬂowing 163 Who’s Who in Orthopedics pen of Jackson Burrows, gave so many accurate Baschurch in earlier days, and to Oswestry in later and felicitous details of his life and inﬂuence. So, too, at Roehampton in the years of For many years, Rocyn was a close friend of the First World War, his enthusiastic spirit of hap- Muirhead Little, who gave him some priceless piness made wounded soldiers believe that life relics of his father W. All his apprenticeship was the safe keeping of the Institute of Orthopedics, served with his uncle Hugh Owen Thomas, the which he helped to establish in 1946. Liverpool was the ﬁrst center of his activities; then it was London; then Great Britain; then the United States; and then the whole world. It is not a far cry to see that whether in surgery or in any other activity, great men do not remain parochial, or local, or national, but rather international and worldwide in their endeavors. The humble origin of Robert Jones in this small Welsh town led ulti- mately to a great British–American alliance in the world of surgery, and then to his establishment of the International Society of Orthopedics and Traumatology, of which he was the ﬁrst president, this body of surgeons expressing almost inarticu- late admiration by creating for him the unprece- dented title of “Permanent President. Robert Jones qualiﬁed in medicine in 1878, and gained the Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh in 1889. He was soon appointed general surgeon to the Liverpool Robert JONES Stanley Hospital and, while still a young man of 1857–1933 30 years, general surgeon to the Royal Southern Hospital of Liverpool. This broad surgical expe- The kindly word, the encouraging smile, the twin- rience stood him in good stead in later years, kling eye with creases all going up in the right when his abilities were applied to that part of direction, and the whole magnetic personality of general surgery concerned with disorders of the Robert Jones, seem as vivid today as they were limbs and spine—orthopedic surgery.
You may at this stage discover that you need to read around some of the ideas in order to refine them or to bring yourself up to date generic 30gm acticin fast delivery skin care bandung. During this exercise you will find that illustrative examples of key points come to mind purchase acticin 30gm line acne around chin. In addition you should be on the look out for illustrations from which you might prepare audiovisual aids and teaching materi- als. And, most importantly, make a note of short activities or exercises that you can use as a basis for student activity. The rough content plan must be transformed into a structure, which follows some kind of logical sequence. There is no single best way of doing so but you may prefer a formal structure from which to work. The important point is to have a structure and make this clear to students when you are teaching. We hope you may wish to be more ambitious and use other plans which have the potential to more effectively demonstrate how knowledge is discovered and organised in your discipline. These plans require extra thought but done well are likely to be rewarding to both you and your students. It can be structured as follows: 21 Introduction: Presentation of the problem (e. The order in which you place arguments in this structure appears to be critical. The order suggested is: Introduction: Overview of teacher’s position and supporting arguments First major point: Presentation of counter-arguments Second major point: Discussion/refutation of counter- arguments Third major point: Arguments in favour of teacher’s position Conclusion: Restatement of teacher’s position These examples imply that all large group sessions are complete in themselves. Consequently, they will need to be linked together to provide continuity from one session to the next. In other words, you will need to modify the plans suggested above to suit the demands of your teaching as it proceeds through the series. The plans illustrate the general question you will have to answer as you organize your material: ‘How will I sequence the ideas I wish to present? However, apparently logical sequences may not always be optimal for student learning and you should give some thought to the ways in which student interests, their knowledge and approaches to learning suggest sequences of presentation. Some possible se- quences are: Proceed from observations of reality, such as a brief in- class activity (e. This is a deductive approach – a reversal of the inductive sequence outlined above. Proceed from what students can be expected to know to what students do not know. PRESENTING THE LARGE GROUP TEACHING SESSION Having decided what you intend to teach, you must now give careful attention to how you are going to present it to the students. Let us assume that it is to be your first contact with this group of students. You may wish to obtain their attention initially by devising an arresting opening. Ways of doing this are limited only by your personality and your imagination. An appropriate anecdote, a video clip, a quotation or a discussion with a few of the group may generate interest. However, it must be borne in mind that the attention of the students ought to be engaged by the material rather than the personality of the teacher. The danger of the latter has become known as the ‘Dr Fox effect’ based on an experiment where an actor (Dr Fox) gave a lecture comprising meaningless double-talk which fooled experi- enced listeners into believing that they had participated in a worthwhile and stimulating learning experience. Starting the session Particular attention needs to be given to the way you begin. For many teachers, this is the most difficult aspect of teaching a large group. Perhaps the easiest way to start is to explain the purpose of the teaching session and how it is organized. An outline on the board or on a transparency showing your teaching plan is a good way of 23 doing this.
Bruce Gill was always interested in the care of the crippled child; he held state clinics in central Pennsylvania during the whole of his active pro- fessional career cheap acticin 30 gm fast delivery acne 6 year old daughter. He was Chairman of a Joint Committee on Crippled Children of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons discount acticin 30 gm otc acne natural treatment, the American Orthopedic Association, and the American Medi- cal Association from 1942 until 1952. From 1942 to 1950 this committee was called the Com- mittee for the Study of the Public Care of the Arthur Bruce GILL Indigent Orthopedic Cripple and then, from 1951 to 1952, the Committee on the Public Care of 1876–1965 Crippled Children. He was a member of the Advi- sory Committee on Crippled Children to the Arthur Bruce Gill was born of Scotch ancestry on Federal Children’s Bureau for many years. He December 12, 1876, in western Pennsylvania, was at one time Chairman of the Committee on at Greensburg. He received his BA degree in Legislation and Medical Economics of the Amer- 1896 at Muskingum College in Ohio, from which ican Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons and of the college, 42 years later, he received an honorary Committee on the Treatment of Infantile Paraly- Doctor of Science degree. Bruce was always interested in education and He interned at the Presbyterian hospital in research: he was Chairman of the American Philadelphia, with which institution he was asso- Orthopedic Association’s Committee on Under- ciated for 47 years, for many years as Chief of the graduate Education for many years. Ashurst, of the Episcopal Hospital in posium on undergraduate education was held at Philadelphia, ﬁrst talked to Bruce about going the Joint Meeting of the British, Canadian, and into orthopedics, but it was Dr. Davis as the third Professor of honorary member of the Ambrose Paré Society of Orthopedic Surgery at the University of Pennsyl- France, of the Pennsylvania Orthopedic Society, vania, which position he held until 1942. He was and of the Orange County (Florida) Orthopedic on the staff of the Philadelphia Orthopedic Hos- Society. He was a member of the Philadelphia pital from 1908 until it merged with the Univer- Academy of Surgery, the oldest surgical society sity of Pennsylvania in 1941. In 1911, he became in the United States, the Philadelphia Orthopedic an assistant surgeon at the Widener Memorial Club, of which he was a president, an active Industrial School for Crippled Children in fellow of the College of Physicians of Philadel- Philadelphia, which had been founded by Dr. Sixteen of these publi- 114 Who’s Who in Orthopedics cations are related to congenital dislocation of the spirit of unrest in the specialty and a tendency for hip; six to coxa plana and other conditions of the the rapid adoption of newer methods that prom- hip; six to the hand; four to cerebral palsy; four ised much but had not yet stood the test of time. He results of Stoeffel neurectomies for spastic paral- proposed several signiﬁcant questions, such as ysis (1918). One of his best publications, “The whether extension of government control would Kenny Concepts and Treatment of Infantile Paral- improve medical services, whether this improve- ysis,” written in 1944, was an answer to many ment could be accomplished by other agencies, of Sister Kenny’s misleading statements and whether it is consistent with our form of govern- unwarranted conclusions on the treatment of ment, and whether this is conducive or detrimen- poliomyelitis. Bruce was always an enthusiastic golfer and Bruce was extremely well known for his work bridge player. He was a charter member and pres- on congenital dislocation of the hip, and was con- ident of the Doctors’ Golf Club of Philadelphia sidered by many to be one of the foremost author- and also a charter member and president of the ities on this subject in the United States. Bruce was one of the believed ﬁrmly that every dislocated hip that had organizers of the Golﬁng Players of the American a shallow acetabulum after reduction should have Orthopedic Association, which for many years a shelf operation—not only to give stability was responsible for the Association’s golf tourna- during the growing period, but also to decrease ments. In addition to golf and bridge, his hobbies the possibility of osteoarthritis in later life. He were swimming, chess, classical music (which he also advocated a shelf procedure for the large often played on the piano), the writing of poetry, femoral head, not well seated in the acetabulum, and in his later years, lawn bowling. For the par- In 1936, Bruce married Mabel Halsey alytic hip dislocation, he frequently advocated Woodrow, a wonderful and talented person, who fusion. In 1953, he tributions to surgical procedures in orthopedics, retired from active practice in Philadelphia, and he fully appreciated the nonoperative aspects of in 1955 went to Mt. He wrote that our “specialty was in a small but most comfortable and attractive founded in the spirit of conservatism. After he Orthopedic Surgeons in 1938, he spoke of using went to Florida, most of his summers were spent a knife only as a last resort and asked the ques- in the North Carolina Mountains outside of tion, “Are too many operations performed in the Asheville. A great orthopedic surgeon had talent and criterion of the great surgeon, he said passed on. He spoke of there being a 115 Who’s Who in Orthopedics regional orthopedics with its central orthopedic hospital, satellite clinics and uniﬁed staff. During the First World War he was prevented from serving overseas by the effects of a serious chest injury, the result of a motor cycle accident. However, he was placed in charge of the ortho- pedic division of a military hospital in Oxford, which rapidly developed until there were some 400 beds under his care. At this time, the Wing- ﬁeld Convalescent Home was an old-fashioned institution in the neighboring village of Heading- ton; thanks to Robert Jones, Girdlestone was later able to take charge of some army huts, which were erected in the grounds of this convalescent home. In 1919 the Wingﬁeld Hospital, to give it its new name, came under the Ministry of Pensions, but provision was made for crippled children to be treated in one of its wards. In 1922, the whole hospital was transferred by the Ministry Gathorne Robert to the Wingﬁeld Committee and Girdlestone was GIRDLESTONE thus provided with the instrument which, until the end of his life, he wielded with such astonishing 1881–1950 success.
In 1922 discount acticin 30 gm visa acne jeans shop, working with study transmissible hereditary changes in immunological Michael Heidelberger and others at Rockefeller buy generic acticin 30gm on line acne vacuum, Avery began specificity, which were confirmed by several scientists. His to focus his studies on the chemical nature of these substances subsequent investigations produced one of the great mile- and eventually identified polysaccharides (complex carbohy- stones in biology. In 1933 Avery’s associate, James Alloway, had isolated As a result, Avery and colleagues were the first to show that a crude solution of the transforming agent. Working tory at Rockefeller went on to demonstrate that these sub- with type-3 capsulated Pneumococcus, Avery eventually suc- stances, which come from the cell wall (specifically the ceeded in isolating a highly purified solution of the transform- capsular envelopes of the bacteria), can be differentiated into ing agent that could pass on the capsular polysaccharides’s several different serological types by virtue of the various hereditary information to noncapsulated strains. As a result the chemical compositions depending on the type of noncapsulated strains could now produce capsular polysac- Pneumococcus. For example, the polysaccharide in type 1 charides, a trait continued in following generations. The sub- pneumococci contains nitrogen and is partly composed of stance responsible for the transfer of genetic information was 40 WORLD OF MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY Azotobacter DNA. These studies also were the first to alter hereditary Relative to other bacteria, Azotobacter is very large. The bacteria But further work by McCarty and Moses Kunitz confirmed the can round up and thicken their cell walls, to produce what is termed a cyst. While some scientists, such as Peter Brian Medawar, the bacterium to withstand conditions that would otherwise be hailed Avery’s discovery as the first step out of the “dark ages” harmful to an actively growing vegetative cell. When in a cyst of genetics, others refused to give up the long-held notion that form, Azotobacter is not capable of nitrogen fixation. The subse- ond environmentally adaptive feature of the bacterium is the quent modeling of the DNA molecule by James Watson and large amounts of slime material that can be secreted to surround Francis Crick led to an understanding of how DNA replicates, each bacterium. Thus, the bac- and demonstration of DNA’s presence in all animals produced terium is able to sequester water in the immediate vicinity. A noteworthy feature of Azotobacter is the ability of the bacteria to “fix” atmospheric nitrogen, by the conversion of See also Antibody-antigen, biochemical and molecular reac- this elemental form to ammonia. Plants are able to utilize the tions; Antibody and antigen; Antibody formation and kinet- ammonia as a nutrient. Furthermore, like the bacteria ics; History of immunology; Immunogenetics; Immunologic Klebsiella pneumoniae and Rhizobium leguminosarum, therapies Azotobacter vinelandii is able to accomplish this chemical conversion when the bacteria are living free in the soil. In con- trast to Rhizobium leguminosarum, however, Azotobacter AZOTOBACTER vinelandii cannot exist in an association with plants. Azotobacter Azotobacter can accomplish nitrogen fixation by using The genus Azotobacter is comprised of bacteria that require three different enzymes, which are termed nitrogenases. The the presence of oxygen to grow and reproduce, and which are enzyme diversity, and an extremely rapid metabolic rate (the highest of any known living organism) allow the bacterium to inhabitants of the soil. The other nitrogen-fixing The representative species is Azotobacter vinelandii. Some species are capable of enhanced versatility of Azotobacter makes the microbe attrac- directed movement, by means of a flagellum positioned at one tive for agricultural purposes. Furthermore, some species produce pig- ments, which lend a yellow-green, red-violet, or brownish- See also Aerobes; Nitrogen cycle in microorganisms; Soil for- black hue to the soil where they are located. They have a lim- B cells or B lymphocytes ited lifetime of from two to twelve weeks. Thus, they are the B lymphocytes, also known as B cells, are one of the five immune system’s way of directly addressing an antigen threat. They and T-lymphocytes are the most But, B lymphocytes remain, ready to differentiate into the abundant types of white blood cells. B lymphocytes are a vital antibody–producing plasma cells when required. They function to specifi- Within the past several years, research has indicated that cally recognize a foreign protein, designated as an antigen, the deliberate depletion of B cells might aid in thwarting the and to aid in destroying the invader. The mature form of the cell is extremely diverse, with and so bring relief from, for example, rheumatoid arthritis. This recognition is via a molecule on the surface of the B ing therapy remains to be proven.
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