Public Interest Law Initiative


By Q. Nasib. Phillips University.

Estimates of the eligible population for nutritional care and support are provided buy sumycin 250mg fast delivery infection 6 weeks after hysterectomy, using calculations from the Ethiopian census data 250mg sumycin for sale antibiotics for acne clindamycin. Finally, the relationship between health, nutrition and development is described, linking them with the Millennium Development Goals. The overall purpose of this session is to teach you some of the basics about nutrition that you will be able to use in your work and will inform your learning throughout the whole of the Module. Learning Outcomes for Study Session 1 When you have studied this session, you should be able to: 1. To have adequate and regular weight gain, children need enough good-quality food to meet their nutritional requirements, they need to stay healthy and they need sufficient care from their families and communities. Your role as a Health Extension Practitioner is, therefore, key in attaining these goals. An undernourished child struggles to withstand an attack of pneumonia, diarrhoea or other illness — and illness often prevails. The children who survive may become locked in a cycle of recurring illness and slow growth, diminishing their physical health, irreversibly damaging their development and their cognitive abilities, and impairing their capacities as adults. If a child suffers from diarrhoea — due to a lack of clean water or adequate sanitation, or because of poor hygiene practices — it will drain nutrients from his or her body. Chronic undernutrition (meaning low height for age, also known as stunting) in early childhood also results in diminished mental and physical development, which puts children at a disadvantage for the rest of their lives. They may perform poorly in school, and as adults they may be less productive, earn less and face a higher risk of disease than adults who were not undernourished as children. For girls, chronic undernutrition in early life, either before birth or during early childhood, can later lead to their babies being born with low birth weight, which can again lead to undernutrition as these babies grow older. Thus a vicious cycle of undernutrition repeats itself, generation after generation. Based on the latest available data, in the developing world, the number of children under five years old who are stunted is close to 200 million, while the number of children under five who are underweight is about 130 million. Like other undernourished children, they may be susceptible to infectious disease and death, and as adults they may face a higher risk of chronic illness such as heart disease and diabetes. In turn, the health of the mother is linked to the status a woman has in the society in which she lives. In many developing countries, the low status of women is considered to be one of the primary reasons for undernutrition across the life cycle. There is a marked decrease in the number of Ethiopian households that consume iodised salt compared with a decade ago, leading to increased iodine deficiency disorder. The greatest functional consequences of malnutrition for children are increased risk of illness, and death; and for those who survive, mental impairment and reduced capacity to produce and contribute to the economy of the country. These consequences of malnutrition are often not fully appreciated because they are hidden. Beyond the individual human suffering, malnutrition reduces mental Malnutrition impacts on health, development and, thus, will mean slower learning throughout life. Malnutrition also reduces work productivity, as stunted, less educated and mentally impaired adults are less productive. It has been estimated that the annual value of the loss in productivity that can be attributed to child stunting is 2. Moreover, iodine deficiency, which results in irreversible 3 impairment of intellectual capacities, has been estimated to cost the Ethiopian economy 1. When aggregated, the effects on illness, education and productivity have an enormous impact on the economic growth and poverty reduction effort of the country. Given the benefits of reducing the burden of malnutrition in Ethiopia, the government efforts to address malnutrition in a comprehensive approach can be easily justified. For those who survive, many have mental impairment and reduced capacity to produce and contribute to the economy. Malnutrition reduces mental development and, thus, will mean slower learning throughout life. For example, time is lost to economic activities in looking after sick children and days are lost from school.

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The Müllerian ducts become the uterine tubes and uterus order 500 mg sumycin free shipping antibiotic resistance cost, and the cloaca divides and develops into a vagina purchase 250mg sumycin antibiotics how do they work, a urethra, and a rectum. The Fetal Circulatory System During prenatal development, the fetal circulatory system is integrated with the placenta via the umbilical cord so that the fetus receives both oxygen and nutrients from the placenta. However, after childbirth, the umbilical cord is severed, and the newborn’s circulatory system must be reconfigured. When the heart first forms in the embryo, it exists as two parallel tubes derived from mesoderm and lined with endothelium, which then fuse together. As the embryo develops into a fetus, the tube-shaped heart folds and further differentiates into the four chambers present in a mature heart. Unlike a mature cardiovascular system, however, the fetal cardiovascular system also includes circulatory shortcuts, or shunts. A shunt is an anatomical (or sometimes surgical) diversion that allows blood flow to bypass immature organs such as the lungs and liver until childbirth. The liver receives just a trickle of blood, which is all that it needs in its immature, semifunctional state. Blood flows from the inferior vena cava to the right atrium, mixing with fetal venous blood along the way. The fetal circulation therefore bypasses the lungs by shifting some of the blood through the foramen ovale, a shunt that directly connects the right and left atria and avoids the pulmonary trunk altogether. Most of the rest of the blood is pumped to the right ventricle, and from there, into the pulmonary trunk, which splits into pulmonary arteries. However, a shunt within the pulmonary artery, the ductus arteriosus, diverts a portion of this blood into the aorta. This ensures that only a small volume of oxygenated blood passes through the immature pulmonary circuit, which has only minor metabolic requirements. Blood vessels of uninflated lungs have high resistance to flow, a condition that encourages blood to flow to the aorta, which presents much lower resistance. The oxygenated blood moves through the foramen ovale into the left atrium, where it mixes with the now deoxygenated blood returning from the pulmonary circuit. Some of this blood moves through the coronary arteries into the myocardium, and some moves through the carotid arteries to the brain. The descending aorta carries partially oxygenated and partially deoxygenated blood into the lower regions of the body. The deoxygenated blood collects waste as it circulates through the fetal body and returns to the umbilical cord. Thus, the two umbilical arteries carry blood low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide and fetal wastes. Oxygen and nutrients from the mother diffuse into the placenta and from there into the fetal blood, and the process repeats. The bone marrow begins to take over the process of erythrocyte production—a task that the liver performed during the embryonic period. The excretory system is also developing: the kidneys are well-formed, and meconium, or fetal feces, begins to accumulate in the intestines. During approximately weeks 16–20, as the fetus grows and limb movements become more powerful, the mother may begin to feel quickening, or fetal movements. However, space restrictions limit these movements and typically force the growing fetus into the “fetal position,” with the arms crossed and the legs bent at the knees. Sebaceous glands coat the skin with a waxy, protective substance called vernix caseosa that protects and moisturizes the skin and may provide lubrication during childbirth. A silky hair called lanugo also covers the skin during weeks 17–20, but it is shed as the fetus continues to grow. Developmental weeks 21–30 are characterized by rapid weight gain, which is important for maintaining a stable body temperature after birth. The bone marrow completely takes over erythrocyte synthesis, and the axons of the spinal cord begin to be myelinated, or coated in the electrically insulating glial cell sheaths that are necessary for efficient nervous system functioning. The lungs begin producing surfactant, a substance that reduces surface tension in the lungs and assists proper lung expansion after birth. The fetus at 30 weeks measures 28 cm (11 in) from crown to rump and exhibits the approximate body proportions of a full-term newborn, but still is much leaner.

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