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Public Interest Law Initiative

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By P. Delazar. Bethel College, McKenzie, Tennessee. 2018.

Fatal arteriosclerotic heart disease buy cheap actoplus met 500mg online blood glucose 107, water hardness at home actoplus met 500mg fast delivery early diabetes signs you shouldn't ignore, and socioeconomic characteristics. Social networks, host resistance, and mortality: a nine-year followup study of Alameda County residents. The association of social relationships and activities with mortality: prospective evidence from the Tecumseh Community Health Study. Psychosocial predictors of mortality among the elderly poor: the role of religion, well-being, and social contacts. Population based study of social and productive activities as predictors of survival among elderly Americans. Religious struggle as a predictor of mortality among medically ill elderly patients: a 2-year longitudinal study. Factors predictive of long-term coronary heart disease mortality among 10,059 male Israeli civil servants and municipal employees: a 23-year mortality follow-up in the Israeli Ischemic Heart Disease Study. Lack of social participation or religious strength and comfort as risk factors for death after cardiac surgery in the elderly. The relation between religiosity, selected health behaviors, and blood pressure among adult females. Relationship of religiosity to wellness and other health-related behaviors and outcomes. Religious attendance increases survival by improving and maintaining good health behaviors, mental health, and social relationships. Ann Behav Med 2001; 23:68–74 Religious involvement, spirituality and medicine 243 58. Religion among disabled and nondisabled persons II: attendance at religious services as a predictor of the course of disability. Factors influencing views of patients with gynecologic cancer about end-of-life decisions. The Faith Factor: an Annotated Bibliography of Clinical Research on Spiritual Subjects, vol 1. Religiosity as a protective or prognostic factor of depression in later life; results from a community survey in The Netherlands. Comparative efficacy of religious and nonreligious cognitive-behavioral therapy for the treatment of clinical depression in religious individuals. Religion and anxiety disorder: an examination and comparison of associations in young, middle-aged, and elderly adults. Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity: Project MATCH posttreatment drinking outcomes. Religious involvement and cigarette smoking in young adults: the CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study). Tolerance of suicide, religion and suicide rates: an ecological and individual study in 19 Western countries. Suicide, religion, and socioeconomic conditions: an ecological study in 26 countries, 1990. Lay etiologic theories and coping with illness in severe physical diseases: an empirical comparative study of female myocardial infarct, cancer, dialysis and multiple sclerosis patients [German]. Religious belief, depression, and ambulation status in elderly women with broken hips. Med Pediatr Oncol 1981; 9:121–8 Religious involvement, spirituality and medicine 245 107. How coping mediates the effect of optimism on distress: a study of women with early stage breast cancer. The role of religious and spiritual beliefs in coping with malignant melanoma: an Israeli sample. The relation of religious preference and practice to depressive symptoms among 1,855 older adults.

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When the the severe oligohydramnios has been a genetic abnormal- oligohydramnios is severe enough and is present for an ity discount actoplus met 500mg without prescription diabetes definition and symptoms. However buy 500mg actoplus met diabetes type 3, not all causes of severe oligohydramnios extended period of time, oligohydramnios sequence that result in the development of oligohydramnios tends to develop. Severe oligohydramnios that have caused oligohydramnios developing during a can develop when there are abnormalities with the fetal pregnancy include a single gene change, a missing gene, renal system or when there is a constant leakage of amni- or a chromosome anomaly. GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS 827 oligohydramnios that could cause the development of KEY TERMS oligohydramnios sequence. Many of the genetic conditions that can cause oligo- Anomaly—Different from the normal or expected. An autosomal recessive condition is Bilateral—Relating to or affecting both sides of the caused by a difference in a gene. Carriers of a condition typi- Renal system—The organs involved with the pro- cally do not exhibit any symptoms of that condition. There are several auto- somal recessive conditions that can cause fetal renal Teratogen—Any drug, chemical, maternal disease, abnormalities potentially resulting in the fetus to develop or exposure that can cause physical or functional oligohydramnios sequence. Oligohydramnios sequence has also been seen in Unilateral—Refers to one side of the body or only some fetuses with an autosomal dominant conditions. This non-working gene can either be inherited from a Although some fetuses with oligohydramnios parent or occur for the first time at conception. There are sequence have been found to have a chromosome anom- many autosomal dominant conditions where affected aly, the likelihood that a chromosome anomaly is the family members have different features and severity of underlying cause of the renal system anomaly or other the same condition. If a fetus is felt to have had oligohy- problem resulting in the severe oligohydramnios is low. If the condition was inher- mosome, an extra piece of a chromosome, or a rearrange- ited from a parent, that parent would have a 50% chance ment of the chromosomal material. Both spo- has a condition or syndrome that is known to occur spo- radic and inherited chromosome anomalies have been radically. Sporadic conditions are conditions that tend to seen in fetuses with oligohydramnios sequence. The occur once in a family and the pattern of inheritance is chance for a chromosome anomaly to occur again in a unknown. Since there are some families where a sporadic family is dependent on the specific chromosome anom- condition has occurred more than one time, a recurrence aly. Sometimes examinations of family members of an If the chromosome anomaly (typically a rearrangement affected pregnancy can help determine the exact diagno- of chromosomal material) was inherited from a parent, sis and pattern of inheritance. It is estimated that approx- the recurrence risk would be based on the specific chro- imately 9% of first-degree relatives (parent, brother, or mosome arrangement involved. However, even if a chro- sister) of a fetus who developed oligohydramnios mosome anomaly were to recur in a future pregnancy, it sequence as a result of a renal abnormality, will also have does not necessarily mean that the fetus would develop renal abnormalities that do not cause any problems or 828 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS symptoms. It is important to remember that if a preg- nancy inherits a condition that is associated with oligo- hydramnios sequence, it does not necessarily mean that the pregnancy will develop oligohydramnios sequence. Therefore, for each subsequent pregnancy, the risk is related to inheriting the condition or syndrome, not nec- essarily to develop oligohydramnios sequence. Demographics There is no one group of individuals or one particu- lar sex that have a higher risk to develop oligohydram- nios sequence. Although, some of the inherited conditions that have been associated with oligohydram- nios sequence may be more common in certain regions of the world or in certain ethnic groups. Signs and symptoms With severe oligohydramnios, because of the lack of amniotic fluid, the amniotic cavity remains small, thereby constricting the fetus. As the fetus grows, the amniotic cavity tightens around the fetus, inhibiting normal growth and development. This typically results in the formation of certain facial features, overall small size, wrinkled skin, and prevents the arms and legs from moving. The facial features seen in oligohydramnios se- quence include a flattened face, wide-set eyes, a flattened, beaked nose, ears set lower on the head than expected (low-set ears), and a small, receding chin (micrognathia). Because the movement of the arms and legs are Low set ears are a common feature of infants with restricted, a variety of limb deformities can occur, includ- olioghydramnios sequence.

In Neurological symptoms of A-T include: addition 500 mg actoplus met free shipping diabetes symptoms for male, a history of recurrent sinopulmonary infections might increase suspicion of A-T 500mg actoplus met amex diabetes uptodate, but about 30% of • Progressive cerebellar ataxia (although ataxia may patients with A-T exhibit no immune system deficiencies. Ataxia • Progressive apraxia (lack of control) of eye movements involving the trunk and gait is almost always the present- ing symptom of A-T. And although this ataxia is slowly • Muscle weakness and poor reflexes and steadily progressive, it may be compensated for— • Initially normal intelligence, sometimes with later and masked—by the normal development of motor skills regression to mildly retarded range between the ages of two and five. Thus, until the pro- gression of the disease becomes apparent, clinical diag- Cutaneous nosis may be imprecise or inaccurate unless the patient Cutaneous symptoms include: has an affected sibling. The most consistent laboratory marker of A-T is an elevated level of serum alpha-fetoprotein (a protein that Other symptoms stimulates the production of antibodies) after the age of Other manifestations of A-T include: two years. Prenatal diagnosis is possible through the measurement of alpha-fetoprotein levels in amniotic fluid • Susceptibility to neoplasms (tumors or growths) and the documentation of increased spontaneous chro- • Endocrine abnormalities mosomal breakage of amniotic cell DNA. Diagnostic • Tendency to develop insulin-resistant diabetes in ado- support may also be offered by a finding of low serum lescence IgA, IgG and/or IgE. However, these immune system findings vary from patient to patient and are not abnor- • Recurrent sinopulmonary infection (involving the mal in all individuals. And finally, reduced survival of lympho- • Slowed growth cyte (cells present in the blood and lymphatic tissues) and fibroblast cultures, after exposure to ionizing radiation, • Prematurely graying hair will confirm a diagnosis of A-T, although this technique is performed in specialized laboratories and is not rou- Diagnosis tinely available to physicians. For a doctor who is familiar with A-T, the diagnosis When the mutated A-T gene (ATM) has been identi- can usually be made on purely clinical grounds and often fied by researchers, it is possible to confirm a diagnosis on inspection. Slomski, PhD Supportive therapy is available to reduce the symp- toms of drooling, twitching, and ataxia, but individual responses to specific medications vary. The use of sun- screens to retard skin changes due to premature aging can IAttention deficit be helpful. In addition, early use of pulmonary physio- hyperactivity disorder therapy, physical therapy, and speech therapy is also Definition important to minimize muscle contractures (shortening or tightening of muscles). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD, is a behavioral disorder, characterized by poor attention, Although its use has not been formally tested, some inability to focus on specific tasks, and excessive activity. Antioxidants help to although studies are still ongoing to determine what role reduce oxidative damage to cells. Most children with A-T Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) depend on wheelchairs by the age of ten because of a lack was first described by a pediatrician, Dr. At the time, he gave an account of 43 children who respiratory failure or cancer by their teens or early 20s. Resources Until the 1950s, it was felt that the symptoms of ADHD were caused by either infections, toxins, or BOOKS trauma to the head. The Genetic Basis of to as “minimal brain damage,” or minimal brain dysfunc- Human Cancer. News and World the name of the disorder to “hyperkinetic reaction to childhood” in response to the recognition of the promi- Report. Still, the diagnosis of ADHD has included certain basic GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS 127 Demographics KEY TERMS Studies on the occurrence of ADHD within different ethnic, racial, and sociological groups is somewhat lim- Allele—One of two or more alternate forms of a ited. However, later stud- itance where only one abnormal gene is needed to ies have not bore these studies out, and in fact there was display the trait or disease. Childhood exposure to certain toxins, such as lead, alcohol, and cig- arette smoke, seemed to be linked to a higher occurrence of ADHD. Other studies point to childhood hypersensi- tivity to certain food additives as a contributing factor in characteristics, such as easy distractibility, hyperactivity, the development of ADHD. Nutritional deficiencies in impulsivity, and a short attention span, especially when iron, zinc, and essential fatty acids have also been impli- related to specific tasks. Early in its history, ADHD was cated in ADHD, but studies in this area are limited. Current studies indicate that ADHD affects Signs and symptoms between six and nine million adults in the United States and is seen in both males and females, with males having ADHD is a condition defined by behaviors rather the condition about twice as often as females. Therefore, there are very specific signs and symptoms that must be seen in a patient for a diagnosis of ADHD to Genetic profile be given.

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May accompany sympathetic or parasympa- thetic manifestations as changes in BP or heart rate trusted 500mg actoplus met diabetes type 1 genetic factors, nausea and vomiting Chronic Pain The determination of whether pain is chronic should not be based on its duration actoplus met 500mg low price zentraler diabetes insipidus hund, but rather on the substantial damage it causes to an individual in terms of functional loss, psychologic distress (sleep and affective disturbances), and social and vocational dysfunction. This pain usually results from peripheral nociception of the peripheral or central nervous system, and it usually lacks neuroendocrine stress response: musculoskeletal disorders, chronic visceral disorders, lesions of peripheral nerves, nerve root, dorsal root ganglia (causalgia, phantom limb pain, postherpetic neuralgia), stroke, spinal cord injury, MS, or cancer. ADVERSE PHYSIOLOGIC EFFECTS OF PAIN This is usually associated with acute pain and is proportional to pain intensity. Obtain a detailed history of this pain: • Character of the pain (dull, colicky, sharp) • Duration of pain 3. Is the pain referred to other sites of the body (eg, ureteral calculi may be referred to the ipsilateral testicle)? PAIN MEASUREMENT The most commonly used two methods of pain measurement are Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). T A B L E 1 4 – 1 A d v e r s e P h y s i o l o g i c S e q u e l a e o f P a i n O r g a n S y s t e m A d v e r s e E f f e c t R E S P I R A T O R Y I n c r e a s e d s k e l e t a l m u s c l e t e n s i o n H y p o x i a, h y p e r c a p n i a D e c r e a s e d t o t a l l u n g c o m p l i a n c e V e n t i l a t i o n – p e r f u s i o n a b n o r m a l i t y, a t e l e c t a s i s, p n e u m o n i t i s E N D O C R I N E I n c r e a s e d a d r e n o c o r t i c o t r o p i c h o r m o n e P r o t e i n c a t a b o l i s m, l i p o l y s i s, h y p e r g l y c e m i a D e c r e a s e d i n s u l i n, d e c r e a s e d t e s t o s t e r o n e D e c r e a s e d p r o t e i n a n a b o l i s m I n c r e a s e d a l d o s t e r o n e, i n c r e a s e d a n t i d i u r e t i c h o r m o n e S a l t a n d w a t e r r e t e n t i o n, c o n g e s t i v e h e a r t f a i l u r e I n c r e a s e d c a t e c h o l a m i n e s V a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n I n c r e a s e d a n g i o t e n s i n I I I n c r e a s e d m y o c a r d i a l c o n t r a c t i l i t y C A R D I O V A S C U L A R I n c r e a s e d m y o c a r d i a l w o r k D y s r h y t h m i a s, a n g i n a I M M U N O L O G I C L y m p h o p e n i a, d e p r e s s i o n o f r e t i c u l o e n d o t h e l i a l s y s t e m, D e c r e a s e d i m m u n e f u n c t i o n l e u k o c y t o s i s R e d u c e d k i l l e r T - c e l l c y t o t o x i c i t y ( c o n t i n u e d ) T A B L E 1 4 – 1 ( C o n t i n u e d ) O r g a n S y s t e m A d v e r s e E f f e c t C O A G U L A T I O N E F F E C T S I n c r e a s e d p l a t e l e t a d h e s i v e n e s s, d i m i n i s h e d f i b r i n o l y s i s I n c r e a s e d i n c i d e n c e o f t h r o m b o e m b o l i c p h e n o m e n a A c t i v a t i o n o f c o a g u l a t i o n c a s c a d e G A S T R O I N T E S T I N A L I n c r e a s e d s p h i n c t e r t o n e I l e u s D e c r e a s e d s m o o t h m u s c l e t o n e G E N I T O U R I N A R Y I n c r e a s e d s p h i n c t e r t o n e U r i n a r y r e t e n t i o n D e c r e a s e d s m o o t h m u s c l e t o n e 14 Pain Management 319 Visual Analogue Scale The VAS is a 10-cm horizontal line with the words NO PAIN at one end and WORST PAIN IMAGINABLE at the other end. The patient is asked to put a mark on this line at the point that identifies the intensity but not quality of his or her pain. This has been called the “fifth vital sign” and is commonly used in the hospital setting to guide pain management. Scores are then analyzed in various dimensions (sensory and affective) to identify the quality of pain. The Minnesota Multiple Per- sonality Inventory (Hathaway SR and McKinley JC: MMPI. Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Testing: This method differentiates be- tween neurogenic and myogenic causes and confirms diagnoses of nerve entrapment, neural trauma, and polyneuropathies. Thermography: Normally, heat from body surfaces is emitted in the form of infrared energy; this emission is symmetrical in homologous areas. This infrared energy can be measured and displayed; hypere- 14 mission indicates an acute stage and hypoemission a chronic stage. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Neural Blockade: Neural blockade with local anes- thetics can be used to diagnose and manage both acute and chronic pain. PRACTICAL PAIN MANAGEMENT The goal of pain management is to provide the patient adequate relief with minimum side effects (eg, drowsiness). Pain management can be generally divided into • Pharmacologic • Nonpharmacologic • Combinations according to the patient response and compliance Pharmacologic The World Health Organization has made specific recommendations concerning pain man- agement. These principles apply primarily to cancer pain but can be used in any clinical set- ting. Supplements can enhance the effects of analgesics and allow dose reduction of some agents. Nonopioid Analgesics: Aspirin, acetaminophen, and NSAIDs are the principal nono- pioid analgesics used to treat mild and moderate pain. NSAIDs are primarily cyclooxyge- nase inhibitors that prevent prostaglandin-mediated amplification of chemical and mechanical irritants of the sensory pathways. Short-term perioperative use of ketorolac (Toradol) can reduce pain medication requirement. Side effects: Possible hepatotoxicity (large doses of acetaminophen); stomach upset, nausea, dyspepsia, ulceration of gastric mu- cosa, dizziness, platelet dysfunction, exacerbation of bronchospasm, and acute renal insuffi- ciency (aspirin and NSAIDs). Opioids: These drugs attach to opioid receptors, which are responsible for the analgesia. Side effects: Sedation, dizziness, miosis, nausea, vomiting and constipation from smaller doses, to respiratory depression, apnea, cardiac arrest and circulatory collapse, coma, and death after high intravenous doses. Opioids can be taken orally, parenterally, or neuroaxially (intrathecal/epidural). Opioids can also be given as a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) (see section with that title). Antidepressants: The analgesic effect produced by antidepressants is due to reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. Side effects: Antimuscarinic effects (dry mouth, impaired visual accommodation, urinary retention), antihistaminic (sedation), and alpha adrenergic blockage (orthostatic hypotension).

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