Public Interest Law Initiative


By A. Cronos. California State University, Fresno. 2018.

State the statistical test and level of probability used in the experiment cheap noroxin 400mg online bacteria under fingernails. Ethical issues Describe any ethical issues that arose out of your study and how you dealt with them buy noroxin 400 mg without prescription bacterial 16s rrna universal primers. Include information about obtaining permission from the rele­ 208 WRITING SKILLS IN PRACTICE vant ethics committee. It would also be useful to briefly note how you have ensured client confidentiality. Provide a summary of the data within the text and place the full ver­ sion in the appendices. Visual displays like tables and graphs are invaluable for presenting numerical information. Remember there is no interpretation of the data in this section as this is reserved for the discussion section that follows. In your discussion This section is about making sense of and interpreting the significance of your findings. This helps focus the reader and reminds him or her of your original objectives as stated in the literature review. How do your results compare with the findings of the studies in your literature review? Have you attempted to explain any inconsistencies or unexpected findings? Make an objective evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of your project. Describe how you might modify or extend your research project in the light of this evaluation. Describe what the implications of your project might be for develop­ ing theoretical knowledge or clinical practice. In your conclusion Draw your report to a close by reiterating the main points. Use your appendices for: ° the full version of your raw data ° copies of statistical calculations or computer analyses ° examples of materials used in data collection, for example copies of scoring sheets, instructions or questionnaires. If your research is qualitative, the structure of your research report will be very similar to the style used for quantitative research. RESEARCH PROJECTS 209 In your introduction and literature review: ° As yours is not an experimental design, you will not have hypotheses as such. In your methods: ° Your description of subjects and the context of your research will be in much greater depth. In your results and discussion: ° The results and discussion sections are usually combined. However, you must show enough data in the main part of your paper to demonstrate your findings. This is a fundamental difference between quantitative and qualitative research. For instance, a student researcher might select fellow students to take part in his or her study. Make a clear distinction between your original ideas and those of other re­ searchers. For instance, you need to provide a reference with a small amount of information if you are replicating another experiment. You may lose a considerable amount of marks or be failed if it is considered that you are presenting another researcher’s work as your own. See Chapter 12 ‘Dissertations’ for information on how to present references. You will also need to check your institution’s guidelines on the expected format of refer­ encing.

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He was only 26 years of without reference to each other; and this tradition age and it was an important appointment cheap noroxin 400mg online antibiotic quiz pharmacology, for he of teaching by systems persisted until the begin- became administrative head of one of the leading ning of the nineteenth century generic noroxin 400 mg without a prescription virus vector. James Macartney, hospitals of Ireland with complete charge of one- Professor of Anatomy at Trinity College Dublin, third of the surgical beds, and was also free to who had been trained at St. Bartholomew’s Hos- engage in private practice, to teach and to receive pital and at the great Windmill Street School of apprentices. Furthermore, on the attainment of Anatomy, appears to have been the first in the this post he was elected a Member of the Royal British Isles to teach topographical anatomy with College of Surgeons in Ireland, which at that time emphasis on the relation of the structures of a part corresponded to the Fellowship of today. Colles adopted this new method of College was in its early years and the reason for instruction and at every opportunity stressed “the its foundation was much the same as that of the practical application of anatomical researches to older English College. The by way of their previous study of uncorrelated splint, of which an illustration was given, cor- systems. Furthermore, he was the first to produce rected the equinus deformity and promoted ever- a work on this new topographical approach enti- sion of the foot. It was applied a few weeks after tled A Treatise on Surgical Anatomy, which was birth and was continued for 3 months or more. He displayed a remained unabated, but in 1813 he resigned the remarkable prophetic insight with regard to the appointment of resident surgeon and was pro- value of rest and the open air by saying: “it is moted to the visiting staff as assistant surgeon. In absolutely necessary that the patient should be 1811 he tied the first stage of the right subclavian kept in the horizontal position, and this not merely artery for a large axillary aneurism, Thomas for two or three months, but for a year or even Ramsden of St. But the caustic issues and position alone will tied the third stage of the artery for a similar con- not cure the disease of themselves; the general dition 2 years previously. Each patient survived health, the tone of the constitution must be only a week because of sepsis. In his published improved by country air, proper diet and so on; it paper describing the anatomy and details of the will not be enough to send your patients to the operation, Colles concludes: “Although this oper- country, if they are left shut up in a room; they ation has not yet proved ultimately successful; must be brought out into the open air, but I think we should not despair. The history of of course in a cot, for they are not to quit the surgery furnishes parallel instances of operation, horizontal position. Colles’ Fascia Although he noted that “the os scaphoides was drawn inwardly from the normal head of the In the Treatise on Surgical Anatomy of 1811, astragalus,” yet he concluded that the oblique Colles dealt with the anatomy of the perineum position of the tarsal joint, and the altered form of and, in particular, drew attention to the middle the astragalus were the primary causes of the dis- fascia of the urogenital triangle, the attachments tortion; from which it would appear that he either of which served to confine within strict limits did not accept or did not fully appreciate the well- extravasation of urine from a ruptured urethra. He known dictum of Scarpa in his summary of the described this structure as follows: anatomy of varus, which was that “none of the tarsal bones is actually dislocated; but in addition Now proceed to dissect the perineum. Raise the skin of to the state of extension of the ankle joint, they the perineum, extending the dissection beyond the undergo rotation on their axes, and the astragalus tubera ischii to the thighs. This exposes to view a strong suffers less alteration of position than any of the fascia, which, on dissection, will be found to cover the entire of the perineum, and to blend itself with the tarsal bones. This fascia, although on a deformed feet by treating them with a club foot superficial view it appears continuous with the fascia shoe of his own device. The shoe had a resistant of the muscles of the thigh, will yet be found, on closer sole of tin, covered with leather, laced down the examination, to attach itself very firmly to the rami of middle and open at the toes. The texture and connexions of of the ankle held the heel in the angle between this fascia will serve to explain many of those phe- upper and sole. A detachable angular side splint, nomena attendant on the effusion of urine into the per- 75 Who’s Who in Orthopedics ineum, by rupture or ulceration of the posterior part of in other injuries of the wrist, render the difficulty the canal of the urethra. Colles’ Ligament On viewing the anterior surface of the limb, we observe a considerable fulness, as if caused by the Colles’ ligament is the name sometimes given to flexor tendons being thrown forwards. The fulness the small triangular fascia that springs from the extends upwards to about one-third of the length of the forearm, and terminates below at the upper edge of the pubic crest and ilio-pectineal line and passes annular ligament of the wrist. The extremity of the ulna upwards and inwards towards the Linea alba is seen projecting towards the palm and inner edge of under cover of the internal pillar of the external the limb; the degree, however, in which this projection abdominal ring. This ligament is also described in takes place, is different in different instances.... It was a comparatively short As soon as this is effected, let him move the patient’s paper but in its accuracy, clarity and conciseness, hand backward and forward; and he will, at every such it was admirable. It is an outstanding descriptive attempt, be sensible of a yielding of the fractured ends fragment of clinical surgery, the reading of which of the bone, and this to such a degree as must remove conveys a feeling of finality in the presentation of all doubt from his mind. The passage of time has altered only the treatment of this injury and not more than 20 years have passed Colles’ Law since a satisfying technique has emerged.

You are likely to have to make several drafts before you are happy with the final product safe noroxin 400mg antibiotics z pack. Reviewing your writing regularly BOOKS 297 helps improve your writing style discount noroxin 400 mg on-line bacteria kingdom facts, and keeps you on track if you also moni­ tor how it compares with your original goals. It is often very helpful to leave your work for several weeks before rereading it. The action points at the end of this chapter offer a few tips on how to get started and to keep going with your writing. Presenting your manuscript You will need to prepare your manuscript for submission. See Chapter 18 ‘Presenting Your Work’ for more detailed advice or refer to your pub- lisher’s guidelines. The usual arrangement of a manuscript is: ° Title page ° (Special notes) ° (Acknowledgements) ° Contents page ° Foreword ° Main text (in order of the chapters or sections) ° Figures (collated in the order in which they appear in the text) ° Notes (collated in the same way as figures) ° Reference list ° Bibliography ° Appendices. The publishing process after the submission of your final manuscript usu­ ally follows these stages: 1. The manuscript is checked by the commissioning editor who may return it to you if any revisions are required. Your manuscript will also be seen by a copy-editor who will check that it conforms to the publisher’s house style. A list of any queries will be sent to you, and the manuscript will be amended according to your responses. Once the queries have been dealt with, your manuscript becomes the final agreed draft. This is sent to the production department for the design work and preparation for typesetting. Changes once a manuscript has been typeset are costly and may delay publication. Any alterations not in the agreed final draft will almost certainly have to be paid for by you. This is why it is essential to have completed and thoroughly checked your manuscript before you agree it as the final draft. Once the proofs have been dealt with, the next stage is printing the book. Your publisher should be able to give you some idea of the timescale for this. You can then sit back and await the immense satisfaction of seeing your work in print. Instead find a corner that you can make your own and use only for writing. In this way you will start to make a psychological link between this place and the act of writing. You will then find that you have a piece of work you can refine and develop, rather than a blank piece of paper. You may falter in your writing due to a lack of information or an unclear plan. Write in short blocks with a specific goal in mind, such as completing a section or writing a summary. You will be fresher in your review when you come back to it at a later stage. It will be at least 20 minutes before you are fully focused on the task. Stop when your writing is going well, not when you are beginning to struggle with it. You will then have something to do immediately at the start of your next session, for instance writing out a list or putting in headings. Try small rewards for your small goals and a very big reward for meeting one of your major goals. First a description of yourself (‘the author’) and second, a description of the book.

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Some ideas are to: ° Place handouts on chairs before the audience arrives noroxin 400mg without prescription virus scan online. PREPARING MATERIALS FOR TEACHING 151 Evaluation Monitor the cost-effectiveness and efficacy of your teaching materials discount 400mg noroxin with visa antibiotics for treatment of sinus infection. Summary Points ° Additional written materials, such as acetates, slides, flipcharts or handouts, are used to support teaching. Al­ though notes are traditionally associated with lectures, students will be re­ quired to record information from a variety of sources. These will include books, journal articles, audiovisual material, demonstrations and the stu- dent’s own clinical experience. In common with other skills it requires practice, and it is not as straightforward as it might seem at first. This section reviews the purpose of note-taking, and looks at how study notes facilitate the learning process. It also offers students some practical suggestions on how to improve their skills in note-taking. Purpose of notes There are several reasons for taking notes as a student. They can be used as both a learning tool and as a study aid for revision. They will contain information that will help you understand the theoretical background and 153 154 WRITING SKILLS IN PRACTICE practical applications of your subject. Good notes will also contain your thoughts, opinions and ideas, making them a true reflection of the devel­ opment in your learning. A framework Your notes are a way to organise both your past and your current learning. They provide a framework that makes it easier to assimilate new informa­ tion with what you have already learnt. You will also be able to gauge how well you comprehend current stud­ ies. Gaps or sketchy notes indicate that further reading or more in-depth study is required. A reference source Notes contain information that will be of use to you in preparing essays. This may be data that can be included in your assignment, or it may be ref­ erences to other sources. Reading through your notes may even inspire you about topics that you would like to study in more depth. An aide-mémoire Notes will help to remind you of facts, figures, theories and practical appli­ cations that would otherwise be forgotten. Their permanent and personal nature means that you will be able to return to them at any point – so you can find information you have collected from journal articles, books and audiovisual material without the need to seek out the original texts or tapes. A learning tool Notes are a way of organising information, which will help you make sense of what the lecturer or author is trying to convey. In good notes, the key in­ formation will be highlighted and clearly distinguished from supporting examples and explanations. The link between topics will be clear, and you will be able to see how smaller details fit into the whole picture. A revision aid Your notes as a whole will provide you with an overview of the areas around which to plan your revision. They can also be used to help you re­ member key facts and identify themes. The actual task of note-taking itself is one way of starting to memorise the material. Rereading notes at regular intervals helps to consolidate the retention of this information.

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