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Absorbed monosaccharides and amino acids enter the blood capillaries; absorbed fatty acids and cholesterols enter the lacteals generic 20gr benzac with visa skin care cream. Intestinal villi are considered the functional units of the digestive system because absorption through these structures is how digested molecules enter the blood or lymph purchase 20 gr benzac free shipping acne meds. Epithelial cells at the tips of the intestinal villi are continu- ously shed and are replaced by cells that are pushed up from the bases of the intestinal villi. The epithelium at the base of the in- testinal villi invaginates downward at various points to form nar- row pouches that open through pores into the intestinal lumen. These structures are called the intestinal crypts (crypts of Lieberkühn) (see fig. Mechanical Activities of the Small Intestine Contractions of the longitudinal and circular muscles of the small intestine produce three distinct types of movement: rhyth- mic segmentation, pendular movements, and peristalsis. Digestive System © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Body Companies, 2001 656 Unit 6 Maintenance of the Body Rhythmic segmentations are local contractions of the cir- orly on the right side to a point just below the liver; it then cular muscular layer. They occur at the rate of about 12 to 16 per crosses to the left, descends into the pelvis, and terminates at the minute in regions containing chyme. A specialized portion of the mesentery, the mesocolon, churn the chyme with digestive juices and bring it into contact supports the transverse portion of the large intestine along the with the mucosa. During these contractions, the vigorous motion posterior abdominal wall. The large intestine has little or no digestive function, but Pendular movements primarily occur in the longitudinal it does absorb water and electrolytes from the remaining chyme. In this motion, a constrictive wave moves along a In addition, the large intestine functions to form, store, and segment of the small intestine and then reverses and moves in expel feces from the body. Pen- dular movements also mix the chyme but do not seem to have a particular frequency. These wavelike contractions are usually weak and relatively short, oc- The large intestine is structurally divided into the cecum, colon, curring at a frequency of about 15 to 18 per minute. The cecum quires 3 to 10 hours to travel the length of the small intestine. The ileocecal valve is a fold of mucous membrane at the junction of the small intestine and large intestine that prohibits The sounds of digestive peristalsis can be easily heard the backflow of chyme. A fingerlike projection called the appen- through a stethoscope placed at various abdominal locations. The mostly clicks and gurgles, occur at a frequency of 5 to 30 per minute. Although the ap- Knowledge Check pendix serves no digestive function, it is thought to be a vestigial remnant of an organ that was functional in human ancestors. A common disorder of the large intestine is inflammation of the appendix, or appendicitis. List four structural modifications of the small intestine that has only one opening. Although the symptoms of appendicitis are increase its absorptive surface area. Rupture of the appendix (a “burst appendix”) movements are produced by the circular layer of the tunica spreads infectious material throughout the peritoneal cavity, resulting muscularis? Which The superior portion of the cecum is continuous with the is the shortest? How long does it take a portion of chyme to colon, which consists of ascending, transverse, descending, and move through the small intestine? The ascending colon extends supe- riorly from the cecum along the right abdominal wall to the infe- rior surface of the liver. Here the colon bends sharply to the left at the hepatic flexure (right colic flexure) and continues across LARGE INTESTINE the upper abdominal cavity as the transverse colon. At the left abdominal wall, another right-angle bend called the splenic flex- The large intestine receives undigested food from the small intes- ure (left colic flexure) marks the beginning of the descending tine, absorbs water and electrolytes from chyme, and passes colon. From the splenic flexure, the descending colon extends feces out of the GI tract. The Objective 15 Identify the regions of the large intestine and colon then angles medially from the brim of the pelvis to form an describe its gross and histological structure.

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It is here that bile and pancreatic juice intestine and the way in which it is supported benzac 20 gr otc acne einstein. The duodenal papilla can be opened or closed by the action of the sphincter of ampulla Objective 13 List the functions of the small intestine and (of Oddi) generic benzac 20gr amex skin care specialist. The duodenum differs histologically from the describe the structural adaptations through which these functions are accomplished. These Objective 14 Describe the movements that occur within the compound tubuloalveolar glands secrete mucus and are small intestine. It has pyloric sphincter of the stomach and the ileocecal valve that a slightly larger lumen and more internal folds than does opens into the large intestine. It is positioned in the central and the ileum, but its histological structure is similar to that of lower portions of the abdominal cavity and is supported, except the ileum. The fan- shaped mesentery permits movement of the small intestine but leaves little chance for it to become twisted or kinked. Enclosed within the mesentery are blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels that supply the intestinal wall. Digestive System © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Body Companies, 2001 Chapter 18 Digestive System 653 Duodenum Jejunum Intestinal v Ileum Tunica muscularis FIGURE 18. The terminal portion of the ileum empties • The three meter length of the small intestine. In a light micro- The products of digestion are absorbed across the epithelial lin- scope, the microvilli display a somewhat vague brush ing of the intestinal mucosa. Absorption occurs primarily in the jejunum, although some also occurs in the duodenum and ileum. Digestive System © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Body Companies, 2001 654 Unit 6 Maintenance of the Body TABLE 18. Digestive System © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Body Companies, 2001 Chapter 18 Digestive System 655 Simple Intestinal villus columnar (lined with simple epithelium columnar epithelium) Lacteal Intestinal Capillary Lamina propria villus network Goblet cells Muscularis mucosa Intestinal crypt Duodenal glands Lymph vessel FIGURE 18. The terms brush border and microvilli are Venule Waldrop often used interchangeably in describing the small intestine. The intestinal villi are covered with columnar epithelial cells, among which are interspersed the mucus-secreting goblet FIGURE 18. Absorbed monosaccharides and amino acids enter the blood capillaries; absorbed fatty acids and cholesterols enter the lacteals. Intestinal villi are considered the functional units of the digestive system because absorption through these structures is how digested molecules enter the blood or lymph. Epithelial cells at the tips of the intestinal villi are continu- ously shed and are replaced by cells that are pushed up from the bases of the intestinal villi. The epithelium at the base of the in- testinal villi invaginates downward at various points to form nar- row pouches that open through pores into the intestinal lumen. These structures are called the intestinal crypts (crypts of Lieberkühn) (see fig. Mechanical Activities of the Small Intestine Contractions of the longitudinal and circular muscles of the small intestine produce three distinct types of movement: rhyth- mic segmentation, pendular movements, and peristalsis. Digestive System © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Body Companies, 2001 656 Unit 6 Maintenance of the Body Rhythmic segmentations are local contractions of the cir- orly on the right side to a point just below the liver; it then cular muscular layer. They occur at the rate of about 12 to 16 per crosses to the left, descends into the pelvis, and terminates at the minute in regions containing chyme. A specialized portion of the mesentery, the mesocolon, churn the chyme with digestive juices and bring it into contact supports the transverse portion of the large intestine along the with the mucosa. During these contractions, the vigorous motion posterior abdominal wall. The large intestine has little or no digestive function, but Pendular movements primarily occur in the longitudinal it does absorb water and electrolytes from the remaining chyme. In this motion, a constrictive wave moves along a In addition, the large intestine functions to form, store, and segment of the small intestine and then reverses and moves in expel feces from the body. Pen- dular movements also mix the chyme but do not seem to have a particular frequency. These wavelike contractions are usually weak and relatively short, oc- The large intestine is structurally divided into the cecum, colon, curring at a frequency of about 15 to 18 per minute.

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The examination reveals bercle is the external elevation formed by the gracile nucleus benzac 20 gr low price skin care secrets. At 36 hours after the accident the boy is able to dorsiflex his toes cheap benzac 20gr with mastercard acne studios, barely move his right lower extremity at the knee, and is able to perceive pinprick stimulation of the perianal 17. Answer D: The optic radiations are located in the lateral wall of skin (sacral sparing). Which of the following most specifically de- the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle as they pass through the scribes the spinal cord lesion in this patient? A thin layer of white (A) Central cord matter, the tapetum, separates the optic radiations from the wall (B) Complete of the ventricle. The cisterns at the midbrain on the basal aspect of (C) Hemisection the hemisphere contain the optic tract. The other ventricular (D) Incomplete spaces listed have no direct relationship to the optic radiations. Which of the following represents the most likely level of damage the emergency department after experiencing sudden onset of to the spinal cord resulting from the fracture to the vertebral col- weakness of his left upper and lower extremities. Damage to which of the following (A) T6 on the left tracts or fiber bundles of the medulla would most likely explain (B) T8 on the left this deficit? The artery of Adamkiewicz is an especially large spinal medullary (E) Vestibulospinal fibers artery supplementing the arterial blood supply to the spinal cord. Which of the following represents the most consistent location of this vessel? A 78-year-old healthy, active woman experiences a sudden weak- ness of her right upper extremity during an angiogram to deter- (A) At C7–C8 on the left mine the patency of her carotid bifurcation. The immediate ex- (B) At L5–S1 on the left amination reveals weakness of both extremities on the right and a (C) At L5–S1 on the right partial loss of vision in both eyes (homonymous hemianopsia). The CT of a 73-year-old woman shows an infarcted area in the ros- points to the occlusion of one vessel. Which of the following ves- tral portions of the dorsomedial nucleus, the anterior nucleus, and sels is most likely occluded? Which of the following arteries sup- (A) Anterior cerebral artery ply blood to this area of the brain? A 69-year-old man is brought to the emergency department by his wife after complaining of a bad headache and becoming stuporous. Which of the following structures is insinuated between the ex- CT shows a hemorrhage into the head of the caudate nucleus that ternal and extreme capsules and is functionally related to the in- has ruptured into the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle. An 83-year-old man is brought to the emergency department by his (E) Thalamoperforating artery(ies) daughter, who explains that her father started having “fits”. The ex- amination reveals an alert, otherwise healthy, man who frequently Questions 5 and 6 are based on the following patient. Which of the A 23-year-old man is brought to the emergency department from the following structures is most likely involved in this lesion? The neurologic examination reveals (A) Cerebellar cortex plus nuclei weakness of the right lower extremity and a loss of pain and thermal (B) Lenticular nucleus sensations on the left side beginning at the level of the umbilicus. CT (C) Subthalamic nucleus shows a fracture of the vertebral column with displacement of bone (D) Ventral lateral nucleus fragments into the vertebral canal. Damage to which of the following tracts would correlate with mal sensations at the base of the neck (C3 dermatome) and ex- weakness of the lower extremity in this man? MRI shows a cavitation in the spinal (B) Reticulospinal fibers on the right cord at these levels. Damage to which of the following structures (C) Right lateral corticospinal tract would most likely explain this deficit? A 92-year-old woman is brought to the emergency department by of the medulla that is served by the anterior spinal artery? The examination revealed no cranial nerve deficits and age- (A) Anterolateral system normal motor function, but a loss of pain, thermal, vibratory, and (B) Gracile fasciculus discriminative touch sensations on one side of the body excluding (C) Medial lemniscus the head. Which of the following (D) Rubrospinal tract structures is the most likely location of this lesion? A 59-year-old man complains to his family physician that he has (C) Subthalamic nucleus trouble chewing. The examination reveals a weakness of mastica- (D) Ventral posterolateral nucleus tory muscles on the left side.

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