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Rumalaya liniment

By K. Sancho. Landmark College. 2018.

The presence of glucose in the dialysate stim ulates insulin release purchase 60 ml rumalaya liniment spasms headache, which in turn has the effect of shifting potassium into the intracellular space rumalaya liniment 60 ml lowest price muscle relaxant for back pain, where it becom es less available for rem oval by dialysis. Dialysis in patients who are acidotic is also associated with less potassium rem oval since potassium is shifted into cells as the serum bicarbonate concentration rises. Finally, patients treated with inhaled stim ulants, as for treatm ent of hyperkalem ia, will have less potassium rem oved during dialysis since stim ulation causes a shift of potassium into the cell. Cheung emodialysis remains the major modality of renal replacement therapy in the United States. Since the 1970s the drive for H shorter dialysis time with high urea clearance rates has led to the development of high-efficiency hemodialysis. In the 1990s, certain biocompatible features and the desire to remove amyloidogenic 2- microglobulin has led to the popularity of high-flux dialysis. During the 1990s, the use of high-efficiency and high-flux membranes has steadily increased and use of conventional membrane has declined. In 1994, a survey by the Centers for Disease Control showed that high-flux dialysis was used in 45% and high-efficiency dialysis in 51% of dialysis centers (Fig. Despite the increasing use of these new hemodialysis modalities the clinical risks and benefits of high-performance therapies are not well- defined. In the literature published over the past 10 years the definitions of high-efficiency and high-flux dialysis have been confusing. Currently, treatment quantity is not only defined by time but also by dialyzer characteristics, ie, blood and dialysate flow rates. In the past, when the efficiency of dialysis and blood flow rates tended to be low, treatment quantity was satisfactorily defined by time. Today, however, treatment time is not a useful expression of treatment quantity because efficiency per unit time is highly variable. The urea value KoA, as conventionally defined in hemodialysis, is an estimate of the clear- ance of urea (a surrogate marker of low molecular weight uremic Flux toxins) under conditions of infinite blood and dialysate flow rates. Measure of ultrafiltration capacity The following equation is used to calculate this value: Q bQ d 1-Kd/Q b Low and high flux are based on the ultrafiltration coefficient (Kuf) KoA= ln Low flux: K <10 mL/h/mm Hg Q b-Q d 1-Kd/Q d uf where Ko = m ass transfer coefficient High flux: Kuf >20 mL/h/mm Hg A = surface area Permeability Q b = blood flow rate Measure of the clearance of the middle molecular weight molecule (eg, 2-microglobulin) Q d = dialysate flow rate General correlation between flux and permeability ln = natural log Low permeability: 2-microglobulin clearance <10 mL/min Kd = m ean of blood and dialysate side urea clearance High permeability: 2-microglobulin clearance >20 mL/min As conventionally defined in hemodialysis, flux is the rate of water Efficiency transfer across the hem odialysis m em brane. Dissolved solutes are Measure of urea clearance rem oved by convection (solvent drag effect). Low and high efficiency are based on the urea KoA value Perm eability is a m easure of the clearance rate of m olecules of Low efficiency: KoA <500 mL/min middle molecular weight, sometimes defined using -microglobulin 2 High efficiency: KoA >600 mL/min (m olecular weight, 11,800 D) as the surrogate [3,4]. Dialyzers that perm it 2-m icroglobulin clearance of over 20 m L/m in under usual Ko— mass transfer coefficient; A— surface area. Because of the general correlation between water flux and the clearance rate of m olecules of m iddle m olecular weight, the term high-flux m em brane has been used com m only to denote high-perm eability m em brane. N ote that here the definition of KoA 100 applies to the product of the m ass transfer coefficient and surface area for solutes having a wide range of m olecular weights, and is not lim ited to urea. N ote also the logarithm ic scales on both axes. Som e authors have defined high-efficiency PERFORM ANCE DIALYSIS hem odialysis as treatm ent in which the urea clearance rate exceeds 210 m L/m in. H igh-flux dialysis, arbitrarily defined as a 2-m icroglobulin clearance of over 20 m L/m in, is achieved using high-flux m em branes [3,4]. High-efficiency low-flux hemodialysis High-efficiency high-flux hemodialysis Low-efficiency high-flux hemodialysis 400 CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY DIALYSIS 350 K A=1000 O 300 Urea clearance rate is usually >210 mL/min 250 K A=500 Urea KoA of the dialyzer is usually >600 mL/min O 200 Ultrafiltration coefficient of the dialyzer (Kuf) may be high or low Clearance of middle molecular weight molecules may be high or low 150 Dialysis can be performed using either cellulosic or synthetic membrane dialyzers 100 50 Ko— mass transfer coefficient; A— surface area. H igh-efficiency dialysis is arbitrarily defined by a high clearance rate of urea (>210 m L/m in). H igh-efficiency m em branes can be m ade from either cellulosic or FIGURE 3-6 synthetic materials. Depending on the membrane material and surface Comparison of urea clearance rates between low- and high-efficiency area, the removal of water (as measured by the ultrafiltration coeffi- hem odialyzers (urea K A = 500 and 1000 m L/m in, respectively). The plateau value of KoA is higher for the high-efficiency dialyzer. At low blood flow rates (<200 mL/min), however, the capacity of the high-efficien- cy dialyzer cannot be exploited and the clearance rate is sim ilar to that of the low-flux dialyzer [3,6]. LOW -EFFICIENCY HEM ODIALYSIS Conventional hem odialysis refers to low-efficiency low-flux hem odialysis that was the popular m odality before the 1980s [3,6]. High efficiency, mL/min Low efficiency, mL/min Dialyzer KoA ≥600 <500 Blood flow ≥350 <350 Dialysate flow ≥500 <500 Bicarbonate dialysate Necessary Optimal Ko— mass transfer coefficient; A— surface area.

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Social zeitgebers and biological New York: Cambridge University Press cheap rumalaya liniment 60 ml with amex muscle relaxant food, 1996 buy cheap rumalaya liniment 60 ml online muscle relaxant addiction. A unified approach to understanding the etiology of 33. Dietary polyunsaturated fats and depres- In: Robins L, Regier D, eds. New York: Free sion: when cholesterol does not satisfy. This evidence for the disorder compared to relatives of control subjects? What other phenomena (possibly genetically related) are and candidate gene studies. Both the twin and family studies also found more frequently among relatives of an affected suggest that unipolar and bipolar disorders share some frac- individual? Alternatively, what other disorders (or clini- tion of genetic susceptibility. Data from the twin and family cal characteristics) may share a common genetic vulner- studies can be used for genetic counseling, and this will be ability with the phenomenon in question? Efforts to find susceptibility genes through linkage stud- Family studies are executed as follows. A proband that ies have yielded several confirmed regions of the genome (most likely) has the phenomenon in question is examined where such genes will be found. These linkage studies will be to determine its presence. Simultaneously, rela- Candidate gene approaches to BP and RUP disorders tives of unaffected probands are examined in the same fash- will be reviewed, with some suggestions for improving ion for its presence. A few of the most promising candidate genes will nation of control families cannot be overestimated, as the be noted. Thus, it Imprinting, triplet repeat expansion, and mitochondrial in- is rarely acceptable to rely on data collected by others to heritance are reviewed briefly as examples of nonmendelian estimate risk for a control population. The risk of a particu- mechanisms possibly involved in these disorders. If the disorder in for future progress will be discussed. Often, the risk for a certain class of relatives of affected probands is expressed as a ratio. Family Studies Shown below is an example for siblings: Family studies can answer three critical questions concern- Sibling relative risk ing the inheritance of a human phenomenon: [Risk for siblings of affected probands] 1. Is the phenomenon found more frequently among the biological relatives of an affected individual compared /[Risk for siblings of control probands] to biological relatives of unaffected persons? Alterna- A family study is not the same as a 'family history' study, in which the relatives are not directly examined, but information from the proband or other persons is used to Wade Berrettini: University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Center establish the affections status of relatives. The reliability of for Neurobiology and Behavior, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The discrepancy in reliability is a function of the which must await molecular studies, is supported by twin phenomenon under study, but for psychiatric diseases the studies (see below). Similarly, a review of SZ family studies reveals prevalence of illness among relatives must be corrected for that the first-degree relatives of schizophrenia (SZ) probands the fraction of the age of risk that each relative has yet are at increased risk of SZ, SA, and RUP disorders (10,15). There are several ways of performing this Kendler et al. Commonly, using age-at-onset data from the affective illness among relatives of SZ probands. Despite relevant population, the number of relatives in a particular numerous carefully conducted investigations, no family age decade is multiplied by the fraction of affected people study of SZ reports increased risk for BPD among first- who became ill by that decade of life.

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Development and plasticity of cortical processing ar- NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation rumalaya liniment 60 ml mastercard muscle relaxant pills. The current excitement in with astrocyte transporter currents during LTP quality 60 ml rumalaya liniment spasms causes. Long-term potentiation: evidence against term potentiation in the hippocampus. Nature 1993;361:31– an increase in transmitter release probability in the CA1 region 39. Use-dependent AMPA receptor 156 Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress block in mice lacking GluR2 suggests postsynaptic site for LTP 64. Homosynaptic long-term depression in tal size by synaptic activity in the hippocampus. Science 1996; area CA1 of hippocampus and effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate 271:1294–1297. Neuron 1994;12:127– requirements for long-term depression in the hippocampus. Postsynaptic factors control the duration of synap- pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms maintain long-term potentia- tic enhancement in area CA1 of the hippocampus. A mechanism for the Hebb and the anti-Hebb pro- propionate-type glutamate receptor. J Biol Chem 1997;272: cesses underlying learning and memory. An essential role for of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole4-propionic protein phosphatases in hippocampal long-term depression. Sci- acid receptor GluR1 subunit by calcium/calmodulin-dependent ence 1993;261:1051–1055. Ca2 /calmodulin-kinase cineurin/inhibitor-1 phosphatase cascade in hippocampal long- II enhances channel conductance of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5- term depression. Rapid, activation-in- Acad Sci USA 1999;96:3269–3274. Modulation of AMPA receptor tured hippocampal neurons. The site of expression of NMDA in hippocampal cultures. Evidence for silent synapses: imparting both stability and flexibility to synaptic function. Activation of postsynaptically based motility in dendritic spines. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999; silent synapses during pairing-induced LTP in CA1 region of 96:10433–10437. Dendritic spine changes associated with Neurobiol 1998;8:364–369. Long-term synaptic depression in the mammalian Neurosci 2000;3:545–550. Synaptic tagging: implications for late main- of multiple spine synapses between a single axon terminal and a tenance of hippocampal long-term potentiation. Anatomy and electrophysiology of fast central syn- 90. Science 1999; apses lead to a structural model for long-term potentiation. Plasticity in the central nervous system: Sci 1999;354:2027–2052. OLSEN GABA IS THE MAJOR INHIBITORY doxal phosphate and the subcellular localization (7).

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Thyroid function abnormalities during PMID: 19808388 buy 60 ml rumalaya liniment with mastercard muscle relaxant quiz. Systematic electrocardioversion for atrial An evaluation of the strategy of maintenance fibrillation and role of antiarrhythmic drugs: of sinus rhythm by antiarrhythmic drug a substudy of the SAFE-T trial discount rumalaya liniment 60 ml mastercard spasms jerks. Heart therapy after ablation and pacing therapy in Rhythm. Quality of life variables in the selection of rate versus rhythm control 296. Quality of life improves with treatment in the Canadian Trial of Atrial Fibrillation. PMID: Rhythm or rate control in atrial fibrillation— 12075253. Pharmacological Intervention in Atrial Fibrillation (PIAF): a randomised trial. PMID: Amiodarone reduces procedures and costs 11117910. Rate control vs rhythm control in patients with nonvalvular persistent atrial fibrillation: 291. Pappone C, Vicedomini G, Giuseppe A, et randomised, controlled study of rate versus al. Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation and rhythm control in patients with chronic atrial Antiarrhythmic Drug Therapy: A fibrillation and heart failure: (CAFE-II Prospective, Randomized 4-Year Follow-Up Study). Maintenance of sinus rhythm and survival in Improvements in symptoms and quality of patients with heart failure and atrial life in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Comparison of rate and rhythm control in hypertension patients with atrial fibrillation. Pulmonary-vein isolation for atrial Discerning the incidence of symptomatic fibrillation in patients with heart failure. PMID: fibrillation before and after catheter ablation 18946063. MacDonald MR, Connelly DT, Hawkins 2013;173(2):149-56. Radiofrequency ablation for persistent atrial fibrillation in patients with 308. Food and Drug Administration HR hazard ratio HRS Heart Rhythm Society ICD implantable cardioverter defibrillator; ICTRP International Clinical Trials Registry Platform IOM Institute of Medicine IQR interquartile range J Joules KQ(s) Key Question(s) LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction LVH left ventricular hypertrophy MI myocardial infarction NR not reported NS not statistically significant NYHA New York Heart Association PICOTS Populations, Interventions, Comparators, Outcomes, Timings, and Settings of interest PRISMA Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses PV pulmonary vein PVI pulmonary vein isolation RACE(-II) Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation(-II) RCT(s) randomized controlled trial(s) 151 RFA radiofrequency ablation RV right ventricular SD standard deviation SF-36 Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey TEP Technical Expert Panel VVIR ventricular demand rate-responsive WHO World Health Organization 152 Appendix A. Exact Search Strings ® PubMed Search Strategy (Final Search Date August 1, 2012) KQ 1—What are the comparative safety and effectiveness of pharmacological agents used for ventricular rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation? Do the comparative safety and effectiveness of these therapies differ among specific patient subgroups of interest? Set # Terms #1 “Atrial Fibrillation”[Mesh] OR “atrial fibrillation”[tiab] OR (atrial[tiab] AND fibrillation[tiab]) OR afib[tiab] OR “atrial flutter”[MeSH Terms] OR “atrial flutter”[tiab] #2 ”Anti-Arrhythmia Agents”[Mesh] OR “Anti-Arrhythmia Agents”[Pharmacological Action] OR ((antiarrhythmic[tiab] OR antiarrhythmia[tiab]) AND (agent[tiab] OR agents[tiab] OR drug[tiab] OR drugs[tiab])) OR “metoprolol”[MeSH Terms] OR “metoprolol”[tiab] OR “atenolol”[MeSH Terms] OR “atenolol”[tiab] OR “carvedilol”[Supplementary Concept] OR “carvedilol”[tiab] OR “bisoprolol”[MeSH Terms] OR “bisoprolol”[tiab] OR “timolol”[MeSH Terms] OR “timolol”[tiab] OR “esmolol”[Supplementary Concept] OR “esmolol”[tiab] OR “nebivolol”[Supplementary Concept] OR “nebivolol”[tiab] OR verapamil[tiab] OR “verapamil”[MeSH Terms] OR “diltiazem”[MeSH Terms] OR “diltiazem”[tiab] OR “digoxin”[MeSH Terms] OR “digoxin”[tiab] OR “Adrenergic beta-Antagonists”[Mesh] OR “Adrenergic beta- Antagonists”[Pharmacological Action] OR beta-blocker[tiab] OR beta-blockers[tiab] OR “Calcium Channel Blockers”[Mesh] OR “Calcium Channel Blockers” [Pharmacological Action] OR “Acebutolol”[Mesh] OR acebutolol[tiab] OR “Nadolol”[Mesh] OR Nadolol[tiab] OR “Amiodarone”[Mesh] OR Amiodarone[tiab] OR “dronedarone” [Supplementary Concept] OR dronedarone[tiab] #3 “evaluation studies”[Publication Type] OR “evaluation studies as topic”[MeSH Terms] OR “evaluation study”[tw] OR evaluation studies[tw] OR “intervention studies”[MeSH Terms] OR “intervention study”[tw] OR “intervention studies”[tw] OR “case-control studies”[MeSH Terms] OR “case-control”[tw] OR “cohort studies”[MeSH Terms] OR cohort[tw] OR “longitudinal studies”[MeSH Terms] OR “longitudinal”[tw] OR longitudinally[tw] OR “prospective”[tw] OR prospectively[tw] OR “retrospective studies”[MeSH Terms] OR “retrospective”[tw] OR “follow up”[tw] OR “comparative study”[Publication Type] OR “comparative study”[tw] OR systematic[sb] OR “meta-analysis”[Publication Type] OR “meta-analysis as topic”[MeSH Terms] OR “meta-analysis”[tw] OR “meta-analyses”[tw] OR randomized controlled trial[pt] OR controlled clinical trial[pt] OR randomized[tiab] OR randomised[tiab] OR randomization[tiab] OR randomisation[tiab] OR placebo[tiab] OR “drug therapy”[Subheading] OR randomly[tiab] OR trial[tiab] OR groups[tiab] OR Clinical trial[pt] OR “clinical trial”[tw] OR “clinical trials”[tw] NOT (Editorial[ptyp] OR Letter[ptyp] OR Case Reports[ptyp] OR Comment[ptyp]) #4 #1 AND #2 AND #3 #5 #4 NOT (animals[mh] NOT humans[mh]) #6 #5 limits: English, Publication Date from 2000-present KQ 2—What are the comparative safety and effectiveness of a strict rate-control strategy versus a more lenient rate-control strategy in patients with atrial fibrillation? Do the comparative safety and effectiveness of these therapies differ among specific patient subgroups of interest? Set # Terms #1 “Atrial Fibrillation”[Mesh] OR “atrial fibrillation”[tiab] OR (atrial[tiab] AND fibrillation[tiab]) OR afib[tiab] OR “atrial flutter”[MeSH Terms] OR “atrial flutter”[tiab] #2 ((rate[tiab] OR “heart rate”[MeSH Terms]) AND control[tiab]) AND (strategy[tiab] OR lenient[tiab] OR strict[tiab]) #3 “evaluation studies”[Publication Type] OR “evaluation studies as topic”[MeSH Terms] OR “evaluation study”[tw] OR evaluation studies[tw] OR “intervention studies”[MeSH Terms] OR “intervention study”[tw] OR “intervention studies”[tw] OR “case-control studies”[MeSH Terms] OR “case-control”[tw] OR “cohort studies”[MeSH Terms] OR cohort[tw] OR “longitudinal studies”[MeSH Terms] OR “longitudinal”[tw] OR longitudinally[tw] OR “prospective”[tw] OR prospectively[tw] OR “retrospective studies”[MeSH Terms] OR “retrospective”[tw] OR “follow up”[tw] OR “comparative study”[Publication Type] OR “comparative study”[tw] OR systematic[sb] OR “meta-analysis”[Publication Type] OR “meta-analysis as topic”[MeSH Terms] OR A-1 Set # Terms “meta-analysis”[tw] OR “meta-analyses”[tw] OR randomized controlled trial[pt] OR controlled clinical trial[pt] OR randomized[tiab] OR randomised[tiab] OR randomization[tiab] OR randomisation[tiab] OR placebo[tiab] OR “drug therapy”[Subheading] OR randomly[tiab] OR trial[tiab] OR groups[tiab] OR Clinical trial[pt] OR “clinical trial”[tw] OR “clinical trials”[tw] NOT (Editorial[ptyp] OR Letter[ptyp] OR Case Reports[ptyp] OR Comment[ptyp]) #4 #1 AND #2 AND #3 #5 #4 NOT (animals[mh] NOT humans[mh]) #6 #5 limits: English, Publication Date from 2000-present KQ 3—What are the comparative safety and effectiveness of newer procedural and other nonpharmacological rate-control therapies compared with pharmacological agents in patients with atrial fibrillation who have failed initial pharmacotherapy? Do the comparative safety and effectiveness of these therapies differ among specific patient subgroups of interest? Set # Terms #1 “Atrial Fibrillation”[Mesh] OR “atrial fibrillation”[tiab] OR (atrial[tiab] AND fibrillation[tiab]) OR afib[tiab] OR “atrial flutter”[MeSH Terms] OR “atrial flutter”[tiab] #2 nonpharmacological[tiab] OR non-pharmacological[tiab] OR “Pacemaker, Artificial”[Mesh] OR pacemaker[tiab] OR (cardiac[tiab] AND (pace[tiab] OR pacing[tiab]) AND artificial[tiab]) OR “Cardiac Pacing, Artificial”[Mesh] OR “Atrioventricular Node”[Mesh] OR AVN[tiab] OR ((atrioventricular[tiab] OR atrio- ventricular[tiab]) AND (nodal[tiab] OR node[tiab])) OR “catheter ablation”[MeSH Terms] OR “catheter ablation”[tiab] #3 rate[tiab] OR heart rate[Mesh] #4 “evaluation studies”[Publication Type] OR “evaluation studies as topic”[MeSH Terms] OR “evaluation study”[tw] OR evaluation studies[tw] OR “intervention studies”[MeSH Terms] OR “intervention study”[tw] OR “intervention studies”[tw] OR “case-control studies”[MeSH Terms] OR “case-control”[tw] OR “cohort studies”[MeSH Terms] OR cohort[tw] OR “longitudinal studies”[MeSH Terms] OR “longitudinal”[tw] OR longitudinally[tw] OR “prospective”[tw] OR prospectively[tw] OR “retrospective studies”[MeSH Terms] OR “retrospective”[tw] OR “follow up”[tw] OR “comparative study”[Publication Type] OR “comparative study”[tw] OR systematic[subset] OR “meta-analysis”[Publication Type] OR “meta-analysis as topic”[MeSH Terms] OR “meta-analysis”[tw] OR “meta-analyses”[tw] OR randomized controlled trial[pt] OR controlled clinical trial[pt] OR randomized[tiab] OR randomised[tiab] OR randomization[tiab] OR randomisation[tiab] OR placebo[tiab] OR “drug therapy”[Subheading] OR randomly[tiab] OR trial[tiab] OR groups[tiab] OR Clinical trial[pt] OR “clinical trial”[tw] OR “clinical trials”[tw] NOT (Editorial[ptyp] OR Letter[ptyp] OR Case Reports[ptyp] OR Comment[ptyp]) #5 #1 AND #2 AND #3 AND #4 #6 #5 NOT (animals[mh] NOT humans[mh]) #7 #6 limits: English, Publication Date from 2000-present KQ 4—What are the comparative safety and effectiveness of available antiarrhythmic agents and electrical cardioversion for conversion of atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm? Do the comparative safety and effectiveness of these therapies differ among specific patient subgroups of interest? Set # Terms #1 “Atrial Fibrillation”[Mesh] OR “atrial fibrillation”[tiab] OR (atrial[tiab] AND fibrillation[tiab]) OR afib[tiab] OR “atrial flutter”[MeSH Terms] OR “atrial flutter”[tiab] A-2 Set # Terms #2 “Anti-Arrhythmia Agents”[Mesh] OR “Anti-Arrhythmia Agents”[Pharmacological Action] OR ((antiarrhythmic[tiab] OR antiarrhythmia[tiab]) AND (agent[tiab] OR agents[tiab] OR drug[tiab] OR drugs[tiab])) OR “flecainide”[MeSH Terms] OR “flecainide”[tiab] OR “propafenone”[MeSH Terms] OR “propafenone”[tiab] OR “amiodarone”[MeSH Terms] OR “amiodarone”[tiab] OR “sotalol”[MeSH Terms] OR “sotalol”[tiab] OR “ibutilide”[Supplementary Concept] OR “ibutilide”[tiab] OR “dofetilide”[Supplementary Concept] OR “dofetilide”[tiab] OR “dronedarone”[Supplementary Concept] OR “dronedarone”[tiab] OR “Disopyramide”[Mesh] OR Disopyramide[tiab] #3 “electric countershock”[MeSH Terms] OR electrical[tiab] OR cardioversion[tiab] #4 “evaluation studies”[Publication Type] OR “evaluation studies as topic”[MeSH Terms] OR “evaluation study”[tw] OR evaluation studies[tw] OR “intervention studies”[MeSH Terms] OR “intervention study”[tw] OR “intervention studies”[tw] OR “case-control studies”[MeSH Terms] OR “case-control”[tw] OR “cohort studies”[MeSH Terms] OR cohort[tw] OR “longitudinal studies”[MeSH Terms] OR “longitudinal”[tw] OR longitudinally[tw] OR “prospective”[tw] OR prospectively[tw] OR “retrospective studies”[MeSH Terms] OR “retrospective”[tw] OR “follow up”[tw] OR “comparative study”[Publication Type] OR “comparative study”[tw] OR systematic[subset] OR “meta-analysis”[Publication Type] OR “meta-analysis as topic”[MeSH Terms] OR “meta-analysis”[tw] OR “meta-analyses”[tw] OR randomized controlled trial[pt] OR controlled clinical trial[pt] OR randomized[tiab] OR randomised[tiab] OR randomization[tiab] OR randomisation[tiab] OR placebo[tiab] OR “drug therapy”[Subheading] OR randomly[tiab] OR trial[tiab] OR groups[tiab] OR Clinical trial[pt] OR “clinical trial”[tw] OR “clinical trials”[tw] NOT (Editorial[ptyp] OR Letter[ptyp] OR Case Reports[ptyp] OR Comment[ptyp]) #5 #1 AND (#2 OR #3) AND #4 #6 #5 NOT (animals[mh] NOT humans[mh]) #7 #6 limits: English, Publication Date from 2000-present KQ 5—What are the comparative safety and effectiveness of newer procedural rhythm- control therapies, other nonpharmacological rhythm-control therapies, and pharmacological agents for maintenance of sinus rhythm in atrial fibrillation patients? Do the comparative safety and effectiveness of these therapies differ among specific patient subgroups of interest?

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