Public Interest Law Initiative


By W. Corwyn. Williams College.

The teacher or school percentage of people with myopia over the last 50 years nurse often recommends an eye examination by an oph- in the United States has led American researchers to the thalmologist or optometrist order 60 caps pilex otc prostate oncology specialists uk. In many states pilex 60 caps low price prostate urine flow, optometrists are licensed to use diagnostic and therapeutic drugs. The doctor asks the patient to view found slightly higher rates of myopia in women than in images through a variety of lenses to obtain the best cor- men. An instrument called a slit lamp is used to The age distribution of myopia in the United States examine the cornea and lens. Five-year-olds have the lowest rate written in terms of diopters (D), which measure the of myopia (less than 5%) of any age group. Mild to moderate myopia usu- lence of myopia rises among children and adolescents in ally falls between -1. It declines slightly in the over-45 age focusing ability at a distance of 20 ft from an object. The fig- example, 20/50 means that a myopic person must stand ure drops to 14% for Americans over 70. Treatment and management Myopia is also more prevalent among people whose work People with myopia have three main options for requires a great deal of close focusing, including work treatment: eyeglasses, contact lenses, and for those who with computers. Signs and symptoms Eyeglasses Myopia is said to be caused by an elongation of the Eyeglasses are the most common method used to eyeball. Concave glass or plastic lenses are mal spherical) shape of the myopic eye causes the cornea placed in frames in front of the eyes. A more ground to the thickness and curvature specified in the precise explanation is that there is an inadequate correla- eyeglass prescription. The lenses cause the light rays to tion between the focusing power of the cornea and lens diverge so that they focus further back, directly on the and the length of the eye. Contact lenses are extremely thin round discs of plastic Cornea that are worn on the eye in front of the cornea. Although there may be some initial discomfort, most people quickly grow accustomed to contact lenses. Hard contact Light lenses, made from a material called PMMA, are virtually obsolete. Rigid gas permeable lenses (RGP) are made of Lens plastic that holds its shape but allows the passage of some oxygen into the eye. Some believe that RGP lenses may halt or slow the progression of myopia because they maintain a constant, gentle pressure that flattens the Normal eye cornea. As of 2001, the National Eye Institute is con- ducting an ongoing study of RGP lenses called the Contact Lens and Myopia Progression (CLAMP) Study, with results to be published in 2003. A procedure called orthokeratology acts on this principle of “corneal mold- ing;” however, when contact lenses are discontinued for a period of time, the cornea will generally go back to its original shape. Light Soft contact lenses are made of flexible plastic and can be up to 80% water. Soft lenses offer increased com- fort and the advantage of extended wear; some can be worn continuously for up to one week. While oxygen passes freely through soft lenses, bacterial contamina- tion and other problems can occur, requiring replace- Nearsightedness (myopia) ment of lenses on a regular basis. It is very important to follow the cleaning and disinfecting regimens prescribed because protein and lipid buildup can occur on the This illustration compares the difference between a normal lenses, causing discomfort or increasing the risk of eye shape and light refraction versus a myopic eye. Contact lenses offer several benefits over Group) glasses, including: better vision, less distortion, clear peripheral vision, and cosmetic appeal. In addition, con- tacts will not fog up from perspiration or changes in tem- RADIAL KERATOTOMY Radial keratotomy (RK), the first of these procedures made available, has a high asso- perature. It was first developed in Japan and the Soviet Union, and was introduced into the United States in Refractive eye surgery 1978. The surgeon uses a delicate diamond-tipped blade, For people who find glasses and contact lenses a microscope, and microscopic instruments to make sev- inconvenient or uncomfortable, and who meet selection eral spoke-like “radial” incisions in the non-viewing criteria regarding age, degree of myopia, general health, (peripheral) portion of the cornea. The PRK procedure manently changing the shape of the cornea so that light flattens the cornea by vaporizing small amounts of tissue rays focus properly on the retina.

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Clinical entities should be familiar with this referral process and the kinds of information provided to insure a smooth encounter with referred clients discount pilex 60 caps free shipping mens health xmas gift guide. Proactive prior referral and/or exposure to an information source such as the CIS can ease the burden on clinicians by transmitting basic information to clients that then does not have to be repeated in an office visit (path c) buy cheap pilex 60 caps prostate forum. Increasingly the focus of health communication campaigns is on getting people to seek more information on health topics (Parrott, 2003; Salmon & Atkin, 2003). As we have seen, this enhanced level of health literacy can result in various improved outcomes for clients. Similarly, as part of a visit clinicians can encourage individuals to use services like the CIS to secure a second, complementary opinion (path d). These services can provide crucial background, support, and assurance to clients from neutral third party. For clients the CIS IS act as a knowledge broker synthesizing and translating information, thus relieving clinical settings of this task. The CIS can perform many of the same functions that call centers and customer relations staff can provide for information technology services. Similarly, it has taken on the increasingly critical role of referral to clinical trials for new and/or experimental treatments (http://cancer. In the past, through clients, it has directly acted to disseminate information to improve practice. In the case of the CIS there was an even broader mandate, a latent purpose to insure the rapid diffusion of state-of-the-art medical care to the public. By explicitly recognizing, managing, and supporting this role, clinical entities can more effectively manage their limited resources to insure that consonant information is provided to clients that is more likely to result in positive healthcare outcomes. While often services like the CIS have been viewed as a competitor, it may be better to view it as a complementary/supportive service, especially for government driven healthcare systems. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. While the CIS is organized to serve clients directly, it can also interface with clinical practice by providing referrals, enhancing health literacy, providing second opinions and crucial background, assur- ance to clients from neutral third party. Thus, the CIS is a partial answer to information explosion: for client it acts as synthesizer, translator who can relieve clinical settings of this task and through clients it directly acts to disseminate information to improve clinical practice. This chapter highlights how information providers can interface with clinical practice to form a strategic partnership that advances health outcomes for the public. All this suggests the increasing importance of information as a strategic asset that should be systematically incorporated in the planning of health professionals. Health institutions need to recognize the potential benefit of marketing unique corporate knowledge and expertise to other information seekers and to consider their unique role in a complex information seeking environment. Health professionals also need to lobby the govern- ment to maintain critical information infrastructures. While more and more information can be produced more efficiently, there is a concomitant increase in the costs of consuming (e. Conceptual confusions in knowledge management and knowledge management systems: Clarifications for better KMS development. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. From two-step flow to the Internet: The changing array of sources for genetics information seeking. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 55, 660- 669. Building the information-age organization: Structure, control, and information technologies. The knowing organization: How organizations use information to construct meaning, create knowledge, and make decisions. Treatment and clinical trials decision making: The impact of the Cancer Information Service, Part 5. Sense-making theory and practice: An overview of user interests in knowledge seeking and use.

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However generic pilex 60caps line prostate cancer african american, they are often difficult to diag- soothing mental images that promote relaxation and im- nose purchase pilex 60caps overnight delivery prostate oncology specialists los angeles. There are no screening tests available, and, since prove their ability to cope with discomfort and pain. An- the symptoms are nonspecific, lymphomas are rarely other guided-imagery technique involves creating a men- recognized in their early stages. Once the pain is visualized, patients by chance during a routine physical examination. When the doctor suspects lymphoma, a thorough physical examination is performed and a complete med- Herbal remedies, such as Chinese herbs and mush- ical history taken. Enlarged liver, spleen, or lymph nodes room extracts, may also lessen pain and promote relax- may suggest lymphomas. Some herbs, such as ginger, are effec- 1284 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 tive in the treatment of nausea caused by chemotherapy, (immature cells from which all blood cells develop), that and others, such as astragalus, help build the immune normally circulate in the blood are collected, treated to system. Check with an herbal practitioner before decid- remove cancer cells, then returned to the patient in a ing on treatment. Researchers are exploring type of herb, the remedies may interfere with other pre- whether these cells can be used to restore the normal scribed medications. Naturally, any other activities that function and development of blood cells, rather than promote well-being, such as exercise, stress reduction, using a bone marrow transplant. Proper nutrition and some specialized diets Expected results may help in recovering from lymphomas. When all the different types and stages of lymphoma are considered together, Treatment options for lymphomas depend on the only 50% of patients survive five years or more after ini- type of lymphoma and its stage. This is because some types of lymphoma consists of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combi- are more aggressive than other types. The survival rate for children six months, but in some cases may be as long as a year. If cancer cells have invaded the central nervous system, then chemotherapeutic drugs Prevention may be instilled, through a needle in the brain or back, into the fluid that surrounds the brain. This procedure is Although the risk of developing cancer can be re- known as intrathecal chemotherapy. Paying are directed at specific portions of the body, such as the prompt attention to the signs and symptoms of this dis- upper chest, abdomen, pelvis, or neck, is often used for ease, and seeing a doctor if the symptoms persist, are the treatment of lymphomas. External radiation therapy, best strategies for an early diagnosis, which affords the where the rays are directed from a source outside the best chance for a cure. Bone marrow transplantation is being tested as a Resources treatment option when lymphomas do not respond to BOOKS conventional therapy, or when the patient has had a re- Dollinger, Malin, et al. Informed Decisions: The Complete Book of donor can be a twin (best match), sibling, or not related Cancer Diagnosis, Treatment, and Recovery. The donor marrow is PERIODICALS then given to replace the marrow destroyed by the thera- “Alternative Cancer Therapies Popular Today. GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 1285 enzymes made from manganese is called superoxide dis- KEY TERMS mutase (SOD), an antioxidant facilitator. Man- ganese may also have some anticancer activity as well as Cytokines—Chemicals made by T cells that act on a number of other important functions. One recent study of dietary supple- mentation with manganese and other micronutrients in Paula Ford-Martin Mexican infants found that children who received the supplements grew faster and taller than a control group Malignant melanoma see Skin cancer given a placebo. The authors concluded that growth re- tardation in children in developing countries is linked to Mandarin orange peel see Tangerine peel manganese and other micronutrient deficiencies in the diet, among other factors. General use Manganese While considered necessary for general good health, manganese is also used for specific health concerns. Be- Description cause of its role in maintaining strong bones, the mineral Not to be confused with magnesium, manganese is in combination with other trace minerals has been sug- a trace mineral used by some people to help prevent gested as a possible treatment for osteoporosis. Man- bone loss and alleviate the bothersome symptoms associ- ganese may also help to ease symptoms associated with ated with premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

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However 60 caps pilex with amex man health 00 days, as studies (Hearst buy 60caps pilex with visa mens health on ipad, 1999) have shown, users are generally reluctant to give exhaustive feedback to the system. Building user profiles: Similar to the relevance feedback, the IR system builds up a user profile across multiple retrieval sessions, that is, with each document the user selects for viewing, the profile is adapted. Unfortunately, such a system does not take account of “false positives”, that is, when a user follows a link that turned out to be of no value when inspecting it closer. Additionally, such systems integrate short term user interests into accumulated context profiles, and tend to inhibit highly specialized queries which the user is currently interested in. Budzik, Hammond & Birnbaum (2001) presented a system that tries to guess the user context from open documents currently edited or browsed on the work space. In an evaluation of their system both achieved consistently better results than standard search engines are able to achieve without context. Additionally, the user might discover a context he had not in mind when formulating the query and thus find links between his intended and an Copyright © 2005, Idea Group Inc. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. Interactive Information Retrieval Towards Effective Knowledge Management 61 unanticipated context. Augmenting Document Sets with Context Text Categorization One way to add context to a document is by assigning a meaningful label to it (Le & Thoma, 2003). This constitutes a task of text categorization and there exist numerous algorithms that can be applied. The general approach is to select a training set of documents that are already labelled. Based on the “bag of words” representation, machine learning methods learn the association of category labels to documents. For an in depth review of statistical approaches (such as naives Bayes or decision trees) see Yang (1999). Computationally more advanced methods utilize artificial neural network architectures such as the support vector machine which have achieved break even values close to 0. However, in the medical domain, 100 categories are seldom adequate to describe the context of a text. In case of the MEDLINE database, the National Library of Medicine has developed a highly standardized vocabulary, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Lowe & Barnett, 1994). They consist of more than 35,000 categories that are hierarchi- cally organized and constitute the basis for searching the database. To guarantee satisfactory search results of constant quality, reproducible labels are an important prerequisite. However, the cost of human indexing of the biomedical literature is high: according to Humphrey (1992) it takes one year to train an expert the task of document labelling. Funk, Reid, and McGoogan (1983) have reported a mean agreement in index terms ranging from 74 percent down to as low as 33 percent for different experts. Because the improvement of index consistency is such demanding, assistance systems are considered to be a substantial benefit. Recently, Aronson, Bodenreider, Chang, Humphrey, Mork, Nelson, Rindflesh, and Wilbur (2000) have presented a highly tuned and sophisticated system which yields very promising results. Additionally to the bag of words model their system utilizes a semantic network describing a rich ontology of biomedical knowledge (Kashyap, 2003). Unfortunately, the high complexity of the MeSH terms makes it hard to incorporate a MeSH-based categorization into a user interface. When navigating the results of a hierarchically ordered answer set it can be a time-consuming and frustrating process: Items which are hidden deep within the hierarchy can often only be obtained by descending a tree with numerous mouse-clicks. Since screen space is a limited resource only a small area of context is visible and requires internal “recalibration” each time a new branch is selected. To overcome this problem, focus and context techniques are considered to be of high value. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc.

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