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Studies of gastrointestinal distension showed a similar pattern of activity (illustrated in Figure 22–10) quality wellbutrin sr 150mg mood disorder icd 9. They also 0 20 40 60 80 100 respond to distending stimuli in the noxious range of Distending pressure (mm Hg) 30 mm Hg (see Figure 22–11) order wellbutrin sr 150 mg anxiety urban dictionary. The response mag- FIGURE 22–11 Mechanosensitive pelvic nerve sensory fibers nitude in the noxious range is greater than that of the that innervate the urinary bladder or distal colon have low ( 5 mm Hg) or high ( 30 mm Hg) thresholds for response to disten- high-threshold fibers, which do not respond until the sion. Both low- and high-threshold fibers encode the distending stimulus is at or exceeds noxious levels. Visceral afferent neurons should exhibit sensitization (primary hyperalgesia), Experimental inflammation of viscera awakens silent therefore, and the spinal neurons on which they ter- afferent fibers which become sensitive to mechanical minate should change their excitability (secondary stimuli. INFLAMMATORY AND NONINFLAMMATORY MEDIATORS ACC PCC Local tissue injury releases chemical mediators (potassium, hydrogen ions, ATP, bradykinin) and inflammatory mediators (eg, PGE2 [prostaglandin Ins E2]). These substances activate nerve endings and trigger release of algesic mediators (eg, histamine, Hypothal serotonin, nerve growth factor) from other cells and Cb (A) Thal BS M1 S1 PMC IPL 100 IBS 80 (C) Thal PFC 60 (B) S2 Cb Normal subjects FIGURE 22–10 Principal cerebral structures activated in func- 40 tional imaging studies of somatic and visceral stimulation. ACC, anterior cingulated cor- 20 tex; PCC, posterior cingulated cortex; Hypothal, hypothalamus; Thal, thalamus; BS, brainstem; Cb, cerebellum. PFC, prefrontal cortex; PMC, pre- 0 100 200 300 motor cortex; M1, primary motor cortex; S1, primary somatosen- Balloon volume (ml air) sory cortex; S2, secondary somatosensory cortex; IPL, inferior parietal lobule. This sensitizes afferent nerve termi- Vaginal ultrasound provides images of the uterus and nals causing an increased response to painful stimuli. For suspected cholelithiasis and cholecystitis, Activation of immunocytes (ex-mast cells) and local ultrasound is the initial imaging method of choice (the adrenergic nerve fibers results in a state of prolonged liver acts as an acoustic window). Upright x-rays during an attack may show Complete blood count (CBC) and differential dilated loops of bowel caused by intermittent Liver function tests obstructing hernia or intussusception, for example. Serum electrolytes Sigmoidoscopy or barium enema may show ischemic Serum creatinine colitis or endometriosis. Blood urea nitrogen CT scan may reveal various pancreatic or biliary tract Amylase or lipase lesions, masses, or dilated bowel loops. Urine or serum pregnancy test TREATMENT CHRONIC ABDOMINAL PAIN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC PAIN In chronic recurrent abdominal pain, tests may iden- SYNDROMES: INTRODUCTION tify a discrete cause. Laboratory studies should be ordered only if their results may alter diagnosis or The goals of pain therapies are to: therapy. CBC, ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation Reduce intensity of pain rate), and liver function tests may lead to a diagno- Improve physical and emotional functioning sis. A pregnancy test should be performed in 8 Reduce drains on health care resources women. IMAGING FOR ACUTE ABDOMEN These tools include all of the modalities and thera- pies, conservative or invasive, used for treating X-rays: upright, KUB (kidneys, ureter, bladder), and chronic, nonmalignant, AIDS-related, and cancer- upright chest films. These therapies can be CT scanning is the standard for detecting most causes broadly categorized as noninvasive and invasive (see of acute abdominal pain. NONINVASIVE THERAPIES Helical CT reduces artifact from respiration and Cognitive and behavioral therapies to improve locus reduces scanning times. CT scans are enhanced of self-control, increase awareness and understanding greatly by the use of gastrointestinal and intravenous of the painful experience, promote activity that is not contrast administration. Helical CT angiography can harmful or activating of the painful experience, also allow accurate assessment of thoracoabdominal increase relaxation time, promote behavior that is vessels. Nonopioid analgesics are suggested for mild to INVASIVE THERAPIES moderate cancer pain. Use more costly and more invasive procedures Neuromodulatory procedures: when less costly or invasive therapies fail. Spinal cord stimulation Use these either in a series (use one therapy at a Deep brain and motor cortex stimulation time, abandon those that do not work, advance to Intrathecal and epidural delivery of opioid and more invasive therapies as in climbing a ladder) or nonopioid analgesics in parallel (use more than one therapy simultane- Surgical interventions ously and advance to more costly and invasive THINKING ALGORITHMICALLY: USING A PAIN TREATMENT CONTINUUM STRONG OPIOIDS ALGORITHM FOR CANCER-RELATED PAIN PAIN +/− Nonopioids The 1980s saw the introduction of the World Health Organization Guidelines for pain management for the dying patient. FIGURE 22–16 Transaortic celiac plexus block with local anesthetic or alcohol. Needle on right is transaortic with dye surrounding the aorta and celiac plexus. CHRONIC ABDOMINAL PAIN The therapies listed in Figure 22–15 move from conservative to invasive procedures. NEED TO RULE OUT ACUTE REFERENCES TREATABLE CAUSES A history of recent trauma should be evaluated with 1. General considerations of abdominal plain x-rays, with a minimum of two 90° orthogonal pain.
In these and other ways discount wellbutrin sr 150 mg mastercard depression workbook, each war sets into motion an expanding legacy of chronic physical discount wellbutrin sr 150 mg with visa bipolar depression symptoms mania, emotional, and fiscal consequences that ultimately affect not only veterans but the larger society as well. Prevailing disease management approaches to prevention and healthcare delivery do not adequately address the symptoms and disability that occur among war veterans in the weeks, months, and years following wartime envi- ronmental and psychosocial exposures. There is, therefore, a critical need for innovative and comprehensive models that can better address postwar pain, fatigue, depression, and other idiopathic symptoms. This need is particularly poignant given the recent return of US and UK military forces to Iraq and the mission to remain there during the postwar period. Can we prevent what may become the latest in the long line of postwar syndromes or are we destined for a second version of the ‘Gulf War syndrome’? Our objectives in this article are to: (1) elaborate a model of postwar healthcare that targets the impact of postwar pain, fatigue, depression, and other idiopathic symptoms on relevant individuals and populations, (2) describe examples of US attempts to develop and adopt the model in the years since the 1991 Gulf War, and (3) discuss future public health and health services research initiatives necessary to sustain, further develop, and improve implementation efforts. Common predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors that determine the natural history of chronic idiopathic pain, fatigue, and associated disability Predisposing factors Precipitating factors Perpetuating factors (1) Heredity (1) Biological stressors (1) Harmful illness beliefs (2) Early life adversity (2) Acute physical illness (2) Labeling effects (3) Chronic illness (3) Psychosocial stressors (3) Misinformation (4) Chronic distress or (4) Acute psychiatric (4) Workplace and mental illness disorders compensation factors (5) Epidemic health (5) Social support factors concerns (6) Physical inactivity (7) Chronic illness (8) Poorly integrated care Disease, Symptoms, and Disability in Populations and in Clinical Practice What can we learn from the empirical and theoretical literature on chronic idiopathic pain, fatigue, depression, and related disability that can help us develop a model of population-based healthcare for postwar symptoms? These chronic symptoms and many other idiopathic symptoms and syndromes are a significant problem in general. Conservative estimates suggest that 25–30% of people’s symptoms are idiopathic. Primary care physicians identify a medical explanation for symptoms in less than 1 of 7 patients in whom a medical explanation is not apparent during the initial visit and associated evaluation. Chronic pain, fatigue and other idiopathic symptoms increase healthcare use but usual invasive medical approaches applied to these symptoms lead more often to iatrogenic harm, patient dissatisfaction, and provider frustration than medical benefit or patient reassurance [12, 13]. Chronic symptoms, idiopathic or not, contribute substantially to patient levels of disability [14, 15]. Chronic pain, fatigue, and other idiopathic symptoms are a source of substantial population morbidity. These symptoms and associated disability often lead to and are produced by distress, worry, anxiety, and depression [16–19]. These symptoms vary widely in severity from single symptoms that are mild and transient to multiple symptoms that are chronic, and disabling. Clinical outcomes related to chronic pain, fatigue and other idiopathic symptoms are strongly correlated with biopsychosocial influences that may be characterized as predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors (see table 1) [21, 22]. Similarly, clinical approaches can either mitigate chronic pain, fatigue and other idiopathic symptoms, or they can worsen and perpetuate them. Research has identified evidence-based treatments for chronic pain, fatigue and associ- ated disability [23, 24]. Alternatively, differing provider and patient explana- tions for these symptoms and disability contribute to the frustration and dissatisfaction with care consistently observed in empirical studies [25–27]. If a healthcare visit for chronic pain or fatigue occurs in the context of commu- nity debate over cause of or blame for symptoms and disability, the provider- patient relationship may be more likely than usual to become strained, outwardly adversarial, or result in mutual rejection [28, 29]. At other times, the provider may unwittingly overrespond to these symptoms, embarking on an overly aggres- sive quest for causes, an approach that often leads to iatrogenic harm rather than symptom relief. A bad healthcare encounter may foster provider-patient differences, disagreements, and mistrust over symptoms that tend to mirror overarching community debates. Alternatively, collaborative negotiation of differing physician-patient perceptions of illness and development of a mutu- ally acceptable model of illness may lead to increased patient satisfaction and decreased physical health concern. The next part of this paper attempts to parlay this current understanding of chronic pain, fatigue and other idiopathic symptoms and into an effective model of postwar or postdisaster population-based healthcare. The Conceptual Basis of Population-Based Care The goal of population-based healthcare is to achieve maximum efficiency and effectiveness through an optimized mix of population-level and individual- level interventions. These levels of care are linked together through primary care using a public health approach involving passive and active health surveillance. Population-level care employs interventions that affect whole populations. Individual-level care, in contrast, uses interventions that target specific patient groups defined by a common illness or service need. Exposure of an entire community to an intervention as occurs in population-level care can lead to a large community benefit even though the average benefit per individual is small.
In the selection and development of outcome measures they suggested that we need to ex- amine the needs of various stakeholders and that both qualitative and quantitative approaches to this research are required safe wellbutrin sr 150 mg depression la definition. Schwartz and colleagues (Schwartz buy wellbutrin sr 150 mg depression symptoms after quitting smoking, Cheney, Irvine, & Keefe, 1997) cau- tioned that clinical research on psychosocial interventions has flourished in the past two decades, and that due to the wide availability of interven- tions, reliance on standard no-treatment control conditions is really no lon- ger possible. A new design for randomized clinical trials is described by Schwartz’s group (1997) that does not require a no-treatment control group, and that potentially identifies dose-response relationships between inter- ventions and treatment outcomes. They proposed use of a three-arm varia- tion of a standard crossover trial. In the first arm patients receive active treatment followed by standard care; in the second arm patients receive standard care followed by active treatment; and in the third arm, patients receive active treatment throughout, allowing also for the study of dose- response relationships. The design avoids ethical difficulties by ensuring all 296 HADJISTAVROPOULOS AND WILLIAMS patients receive treatment and also in the final arm allows for study of the process of change. Most studies are hopelessly underpowered for their aims, and the use of treatment rather than no-treatment controls (as recommended) will require even larger samples to show differences. Based on review of the research as it stands, it is apparent that many pa- tients have benefited from the development of psychological interventions outlined here and are substantially better served than they were 40 years ago. There is now widespread acceptance for the role of psychological in- terventions in the treatment of chronic pain, and, in particular, it has been recommended that pain treatment facilities, in addition to physical therapy and education, include CBT on a routine basis (Fishbain, 2000). At the present time a CBT approach would appear to have the greatest support in working with pa- tients. Within this approach, however, there is considerable variability in how this can be applied, and until further research is available, clinicians are likely to continue to tailor their approach to the needs of the patients. To maintain the rate of improvement we have achieved, a critical apprecia- tion of where we are now is needed, as well as continued attempts to over- come methodological challenges in research already noted. Above and be- yond improved research as described earlier, routine audit and publication of outcomes of existing clinical programs would be highly beneficial so that best practice can evolve from the widest possible clinical base. REFERENCES American Psychological Association, Division of Clinical Psychology, Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. Training in and dissemination of em- pirically-validated psychological treatments: Report on recommendations. Treatment outcome of chronic non-malignant pain patients managed in a Danish multidisciplinary pain centre compared to general practice: A randomized controlled trial. Preliminary results of the effects of headache relief of perception of success among tension headache patients receiving relax- ation. Behavioral treatment of chronic pain: The spouse as a discriminative cue for pain behavior. Effects of psychological therapy on pain behaviour of rheumatoid patients: Treatment outcome and six-month follow-up. Psychological screening in the surgical treatment of lumbar disc herni- ation. Perceived treat- ment helpfulness and cost in chronic pain rehabilitation. Sampling of empir- ically supported psychological treatments from health psychology: Smoking, chronic pain, cancer, and bulimia nervosa. Psychological preparation for surgery: Mar- shalling individual and social resources to optimize self-regulation. A meta-analysis of EMG biofeedback treatment of temporo- mandibular disorders. Effects of relaxation and guided imagery on knee strength, reinjury anxiety, and pain following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Assessing short- and long-term recovery from lumbar surgery with pre-operative bio- graphical, medical and psychological variables. Pain demands attention: A cognitive-affective model of the interruptive function of pain. Systematic re- view of randomised controlled trials of psychological therapy for chronic pain in children and adolescents, with a subset meta-analysis of pain relief. Pain, negative mood, and perceived sup- port in chronic pain patients: A daily diary study of people with reflex sympathetic dystro- phy syndrome. The utility of cognitive coping strategies for altering pain per- ception: A meta-analysis. Symptom-specific psycho- physiological responses in chronic pain patients.
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